menstrual.txt

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Author:
mhunger
ID:
176007
Filename:
menstrual.txt
Updated:
2012-10-07 10:54:55
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Reproductive menstrual disorders
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Description:
Reproductive part 1, menstrual disorders
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  1. Amenorrhea
    • absence of menstruation
    • two types -primary and secondary
  2. Primary amenorrhea
    • refers to no menstrual periods by age 16
    • affects less than 1% of adolescent girls in the US
  3. Causes of primary amenorrhea
    • chromosomal abnormalities
    • hypothalmaic dysfunction
    • pituitary disease
    • lack of reproductive organs
    • structural abnormalities of the vagina
  4. Diagnosis of primary amenorrhea
    workup if menses (by age 13) and onset of puberty (such as breast development) have not occurred
  5. Secondary amenorrhea
    has a menstrual cycle but with periodic interruptions of 3-6 months
  6. Causes of secondary amenorrhea
    • pregnancy
    • contraceptives
    • breast feeding
    • stress
    • medications
    • hormonal imbalance
    • low body weight
    • excessive exercise
    • thyroid disfuntion
    • pituitary tumor
    • uterine scarring
    • primary ovarian insufficiency
  7. Diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea
    • pregnancy test
    • pelvic exam
    • physical exam
    • check hormonal blood levels
    • progestin challenge
    • imaging
    • laparoscopy or hysteroscopy
    • lifestyle changes
    • oral contraceptives
    • thyroid medications
    • dopamine receptor agonists
  8. Dysmenorrhea
    • painful or difficult menses
    • cramps either merely annoying or severe enough to interfere with everyday activities for a few days every month
  9. Primary symptoms of dysmenorrhea
    • dull, throbbing or cramping pain in your lower abdomen
    • pain radiating to lower back and thighs
  10. Secondary symptoms of dysmenorrhea
    • nausea and vomiting
    • loose stools
    • sweating
    • dizziness
  11. Primary dysmenorrhea
    • no physical abnormality is evident and usually begins 6 months to 1 year following initiation of menstruation
    • primary cause: prostaglandins
    • treatment: NSAIDs
  12. Secondary dysmenorrhea
    causes include pelvic inflammatory disease and sexually transmitted diseases
  13. Diagnosis for secondary dysmenorrhea
    • pelvic exam
    • ultrasound
    • laparoscopy
    • hysteroscopy
  14. Treatment for secondary dysmenorrhea
    • antibiotics
    • oral contraceptives
    • NSAIDs
  15. Menorrhagia
    • excessive or prolonged bleeding during menstruation
    • clinically defined as total blood loss >80 ml per cycle or menses lasting >7 days
  16. Causes of menorrhagia
    • hormonal imbalance
    • fibroid tumors
    • lack of ovulation
    • use of IUD
    • pregnancy complications
    • medications
    • pelvic inflammatory disease
    • thyroid disorders
    • endometriosis
    • liver or kidney disease
  17. Treatment of menorrhagia
    • iron supplements
    • NSAIDs
    • oral contraceptives
    • progesterone
    • surgery
  18. Metorrhagia
    defined as either bleeding beween menstrual cycles or irregularity of the menstrual cycle
  19. Causes of metorrhagia
    • hormonal imbalance
    • endometriosis
    • infection
    • miscarriage
    • ectopic pregnancy
    • cancer
    • use of IUD
    • thyroid disorder
    • diabetes
    • blood clotting factors
  20. Prevention of metorrhagia
    • early diagnosis
    • treatment of sexually transmitted diseases
    • eliminate use of IUD
  21. Diagnosis of metorrhagia
    • record of menstrual cycle
    • pelvic exam
    • blood tests
    • hyteroscopy
    • x-ray
    • biopsy
    • ultrasound
  22. Treatment of metorrhagia
    • oral contraceptives
    • progesterone or synthetic analogues
    • antibiotics
    • NSAIDs
    • competitice plasminogen inhibitors
    • synthetic gonadotropic-releasing hormone agonists
    • surgery

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