Module 3

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Module 3
2012-12-10 18:53:07
Objective 33 38

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  1. Diverse shapes allow proteins to carry out many functions.  Name the six divers shapes.
    • Structural
    • Regulatory
    • Contractile
    • Immunological
    • Transport
    • Catalytic
  2. What is the function of a Structural protein?
    Form structural framework of various parts of the body.

    Ex: collegen in bone and other connective tissues, and keratin in skin, hair, and fingernails.
  3. What is the function of a Regulatory protein?
    Function as hormones that regulate various physiological processes: control growth and development; as neurotransmitters, mediate responses of the nervous system.
  4. What is the function of a Contractile protein?
    Allow shortening of muscle cells, which produces movement.

    Ex: myosin and actin
  5. What is the function of a Immunological protein?
    Aid responses that protect body against foreign substances and invading pathogens.

    Ex: antibodies and interleukins.
  6. What is the function of a Transport protein?
    Carry vital substaces throughout body.

    Ex: hemoglobin, which transports most oxygen and some carbon dioxide in the blood.
  7. What is the function of a Catalytic protein?
    Act as enzymes that regulate biochemical reactions.

    Ex: Salivary amylase, sucrase, and ATPase.
  8. Chemical reactions either absorb or _________ energy.
  9. Substance undergoing reaction =
  10. Enzyme names almost always end in
  11. What splits the disaccharide sucrose into glucose and fructose?
  12. What are the fat-soluble vitamins
  13. What is the monomer for both DNA and  RNA?
  14. What are the Nucleic acid bases:
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
    • Thymine (DNA)
    • Uracil (RNA)
  15. What is the nucleic acid sugars
    • Deoxyribose (DNA)
    • Ribose (RNA)
  16. Nucleotides have 3 parts, what are they?
    Phosphate group

    A five-carbon sugar or pentose

    A cyclic, nitrogen-containing base
  17. Nucleotides are monomers of
    nucleic acids
  18. The overall structure of DNA is known as the
    double helix and cosists of two twisted strands.
  19. The DNA and RNA molecules have a backbone which is made up of the
    sugar-phosphate combination.
  20. The A-T combination forms how many hydrogen bonds
  21. The C-G combination forms how many hydrogen bonds
  22. What is more stable DNA or RNA?
  23. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA
    DNA is the permanent set of instructionf for the organism.

    RNA is a "scratchpad" molecule that is used for temporary storage and manipulation of genetic information as it is expressed as a protein.

    • DNA uses the four bases A, C, G and T.
    • RNA uses the four bases A, C, G and U.

    • DNA is usually in a double helix
    • RNA is generally found in a single-stranded form
  24. What do "squiggles" represent
    High energy bonds   ATP
  25. Cellular pathways that require energy are adapted to use
    ATP as their energy source
  26. What is used as the energy currency for the cell?
  27. What is the secret of ATP?
    High-energy phosphate bonds
  28. Forms of cellular energy.  What are the types of energy?
    • Electrical
    • Heat
    • Potential (chemical)
    • Radiant
  29. What bionergetic event does elctrical produce?
    Nerve inpulses
  30. What bioenergetic event does heat produce?
    Cellular chemical reactions
  31. What bioenergetic event does mechanical produce?
    Muscle contractions
  32. What bioenergetic event does potential (chemical) produce?
    Energy-rich covalent bonds
  33. What bioenergetic event does radiant produce?
    photosynthesis in plants