Psychology test 2

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Psychology test 2
2012-12-09 18:49:55
Amy Jennings AU Psych 101 Anderson University Human development

questions to study for our 2nd test in Psych 101 with Amy Jennings
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  1. Definition of Human Development
    the study of how behavior changes over time
  2. Stranger Anxiety & Separation Anxiety
    • Stranger  Anxiety- the fear, caution, and wariness an infant displays when encountering unfamililar people
    • Separation Anxiety- the fear infants displya when a familiar caregiver leaves.
  3. imprinting
    the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life
  4. Harlow's Monkeys and Contact Comfort
    • infants bond with their mothers through bodily contact
    • Contact comfort- positive emotions afforded by touch.
  5. what is attachment and who came up with it?
    • Mary Ainsworth
    • Attachment- a close emotional bond between the infant and the caregiver
  6. what are the 4 kinds of attachment?
    • insecure-avoidant
    • secure
    • insecure-resistant/ambivalent
    • disorganized
  7. What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments?
    • 1. Withdrawn
    • 2. Frightened
    • 3. Unable to develop speech
  8. Constructivist theory
    2 adjustment processes
    • constructivist theory- children construct an understanding of the wrold based on observations of the effects of their  behavior
    • 1. Assimilation- absorbing new info into current knowledge
    • 2. Accommodation- altering a belif to make it compatible with new experience
  9. Egocentrism
    egocentrism- the inability to see the world from others' perspective (pre-schoolers)
  10. Vygotsky focused on
    Scaffolding is
    • Social & Cultural influences on learning; social interaction
    • Scaffolding- learning mechanism in which parents provide initial guidence in child's learning then gradually remove structure
  11. Adolescent Development
    goals of adolescents
    • G. Stanley Hall was the 1st psychologist; coined the term adolsecence
    • goals:
    • 1. Seeking status- known as an individual
    • 2. focused on relationships
    • 3. intellectual growth- learning how to think differently
  12. Primary Sexual Characteristics vs Secondary Sexual Characteristics
    • Primary sexual characterists- the reproductive organs and genitals
    • secondary sexual characteristics- the nonreproductive traits like development of breasts, deepening of voice and pubic hair
  13. moral development
    • Kohlberg
    • moral development: the process of decision making about right or wrong
    • Piaget is to cognitive development as Kohlberg is to moral development
  14. menopause
    the termination of  menstruation, marking the end of a women's reproductive potential
  15. fluid intelligence vs crystalline intellegence (KNOW DIFFERENCE)
    • Fluid intellegence: ability to reason speedily
    • Crystalline intelligence: accumulated knowledge & verbal skills)
  16. empty-nest syndrome
    midlife crisis
    • emtpy nest syndrome: alleged period of depression in others following the departure of their chldren from home (proven false)
    • Midlife crisis: supposed phase of adulthood characterized by emotional distress about the aging process & an attempt to re-gain youth
  17. sensation & perception
    • sensation: detection of physical energy by sense organs
    • perception: brain's organization & interpretation of raw sensory inputs
  18. bottom up processing
    top down processing
    • bottom up: analysis of the stimulus begins with the sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind
    • top down: information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawing on our experience and expectations
  19. psychophysics
    the study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics
  20. absolute threshold
    minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular simulus 50% of the time
  21. 3 steps of the process of sensation
    • 1. reception
    • 2. transduction
    • 3. transmission
  22. transduction
    conversion of external energies or substances into a neural impulse that one's brain can interpret
  23. parallel processing
    • processing of serveral aspects of the stimulus at one time
    • (like seeing the color, motion, form and depth of a bird as it flies)
  24. pain & gate-control theory
    our spinal cord contains neurological "gates" that either block pain or allow it to be sensed
  25. 5 receptors of taste
    • 1. sweet
    • 2. sour
    • 3. salty
    • 4. bitter
    • 5. umami (fresh chicken) pronounced "you mommy"
  26. sensory interaction
    taste receptors
    • sensory interaction: when one sense affects another sense
    • taste receptors: reproduce themselves every 2 weeks
  27. Gestalt
    perceptional consistancy
    • He's a psychologist who studied perceptual organization
    • Says that we organize sensory information
    • perceptual consistancy: perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
  28. Moon illusion
    the Ames room
    • Moon illusion: the moon appears larger when it is near the horizion than when it's high in the sky
    • Ames room: trapezoidal room with slanted floor and ceiling makes occupants appear to vary in height
  29. what is selective attention?
    • The process of focusing on one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others
    • (like a man asks for directions on the street. while people focus on the map, the man who asked directions is swapped with another man & most people don't notice)
  30. perceptual sets
    a mental predisposition to percieve one thing and not another. (like the picture of the old lady & the young woman)
  31. context effects
    context can radically alter perception