Physio -Jenkins- Exam 2

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pearl.lagua
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176064
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Physio -Jenkins- Exam 2
Updated:
2012-10-09 16:36:46
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nerves neurons
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Nerves/Neurons alpha 1, beta 1, beta2
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  1. Soma
    The Cell Body.  Contains nucleus and most organelles
  2. Dendrites
    These are the long slender threads that protrude from the soma.  This is the reception area for incoming information from the Axon Terminals of another neuron.
  3. Axon
    The long fiber that extends from the base of the soma to transmit electrical impulses called action potentials.
  4. Axon Terminals
    These are the alien fingers (with pods) that branch off of the Axon. They release neurotransmitters to the dendrites of the next neuron.
  5. Synapse
    These are these are the pods at the end of the Axon Terminals where the exchange of neurotransmitters happens.  This is the site of communication between the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron and an effector organ
  6.  Leak Channels
    • ~Always Open
    • ~Potassium only 
    • ~Located throughout a neuron
  7. Ligand-gated channels
    ~Open or close in response to ligand binding
  8. Resting Membrane Potential
    •                            -70 mV   
    • ~When the neruron is at rest. 
    • ~The inside of the neuron is negative inside
    •   and the outside is more positive.
    • ~K+ can cross through the membrane easily.
  9. Voltage gated channels:
    Open or close in a response to change in the membrane potential.
  10. Afferent Neuron
    • ~Sensory/Visceral receptors
    • ~temp and pressure
    • ~PNS to CNS
  11. Efferent Neurons
    • ~Effector Organs
    • ~CNS to PNS
  12. Oligodendrocytes
    • ~Fat dense cells which form meylination for 
    •   multiple axons and provide protection.
    • ~form segments of myelin sheaths of numerous
    •   neurons at once.
  13. Schwann Cells
    • ~PNS
    • One schwann cell forms ONE myelin sheath that myelinates one section of an axon. Seperated by the Node of Ranvier
  14. Resting Membrane Potential
    Determines the equalibrium of potentials for sodium and potass
  15. Determining Resting Membrane Potential
    • 1. Ion concentration gradients
    • 2. Membrane permeability
    • 3. Ion Channels
  16. Potassium Equalibrium Potential
    • ~As potassium diffuses outof the cell the
    •   inside of the cell becomes more negative.
    • ~Eletrical driving force "pulls" potassium into
    •   the cell until equalibrium equals -94 mV.
    • ~These driving forces are opposite in direction
    •   and equal in magnitude.
  17. Sodium Equalibrium
    • ~As sodium diffuses into the cell the inside becomes less negative (positive).
    • ~eletrical driving force "Push" sodium outside of the cell.
    • ~Equalibrium is +60mV
  18. Resting membrane potential of neurons is permeable to both sodium and potassium however, it is 25% more permeable to ______?
    Potassium
  19. At resting membrane potential, the iside of the cell has more...
    potassium and organic anions
  20. At resting membrane potential, the outside of the cell has more...
    Sodium and Chloride
  21. Sodium going into the cell creates a more______ charge
    Positive
  22. Potassium moving outside the cell creates a more ___________ charge.
    Negative
  23. What is Absolute Refractory Period
    the period immediately following the firing of a nuron when it cannot be stimulated no matter how great a stimulus is applied.
  24. Hyperpolorization
    • The time when an action potential is below   
    • -70mV

    a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative
  25. Refractory Period
    the amount of time it takes for an excitable membrane to be ready for a second stimulus
  26. Repolarization
    The return to resting membrane potential
  27. Depolarization
    a change in a cell's membrane potential, making it more positive
  28. Threshold
    the point at which sodium ions start to move into the cell (instead of out of the cell) to bring about the membrane depoloarization
  29. Effector organ
    Muscle or gland
  30. eletrical synapse
    two neurons linked together by gap junctions finctions in nervous system
  31. chemical synapse
    • most of sensations and motor signals are carried via chemical synapse.
    • Neuron to Neuron or Neuron to Muscle
  32. Synaptic Cleff
    where synapse occours.
  33. axodendritic
    From axon to presynaptic neuron
  34. axosymatic
    synapse to soma
  35. axoaxonic
    presynaptic synapses to axon of post synaptic neuron
  36. presynaptic
    Delivering signal
  37. postsynaptic
    Receiviving signal
  38. post synaptic potentials
    a change in the charge on the membrane of the post synaptic cell
  39. what are the two types of post synaptic potential?
    Excitatory and inhibatory
  40. excitatory post synaptic potential
    makes the cell more likely to depolarize.  They Hypopolarize to less negative.
  41. inhibatory post synaptic signals
    less likely to produce a potential.  hypopolarzation (more negative).
  42. divergence
    one nuron to multiple
  43. convergence
    multiple nurons signal to one nuron
  44. Grand Postsybnaptic Potential GPSP
    • addition of all effects of the ISP & ESP
    • the sum of all their signals on one cell
  45. what are the 2 types of sumation?
    Temporal and Spatial
  46. Temporal Sumation
    one synapse fires rapidly onto the next nuron
  47. Spatial Summation
    lots of different synapses occouring all at the same time and in close proximity
  48. graded potential
    a potential that does not reach threshold
  49. action potential
    does not increase
  50. Brain Lateralization:
             Sensory pathways
             Motor Pathways
    • Rignt Brain controls Left side of body
    • Left Brian controls Right side of body
  51. Right Brain
    • Creativity
    • Spatial Perception
  52. Left Brain
    • logic
    • analytical
    • language
  53. Reflexes come from the ___ nerous system?
    Central (CNS)
  54. sensory receptors are what kind of neuron?
    afferent neuron
  55. afferent neuron
    sensory
  56. intergration center
    interneuron
  57. efferent nuron
    motor
  58. effector organ
    skeletal muscle
  59. WHAT ARE THE STEPS OF AN ACTION POTENTIAL
    SIGNAL-SODIUM RELEASE-AFFERENT NURON-CNS-EFFERENT NEURON-EFFECTOR ORGAN-RESPONSE
  60. VOLUNTARY MOTOR CONTROL
    • skeletal muscle:
    • one motor nuron to a single muscle cell.
    • ALWAYS EXCITATORY
    • ALWAYS CALLED LOWER MOTOR NEURON
  61. HOW DO YOU CONTRACT A MOTOR CELL?
    ACTIVATE THE MOTOR NEURON
  62. HOW DO YOU RELAX A MUSLE CELL
    DO NOT ACTIVATE A MOTOR NEURON
  63. SKIN RECEPTORS DETECT:
    TEMP AND PRESSURE
  64. PROPRIOCEPTORS RECEPTORS
    DETERMINE ONE FINGER TOUGH AND TWO FINGER TOUCH. SENSE RELATION OF BODY WITH OBJECTS. EX. WALKING AT NIGHT DOWN STAIRS.
  65. Diseases that Effect the Nervous system
    Huntingtons: blocks ability to coordinate motor movement. lots of involuntary movement.
  66. parkinsons disease
    • lack of dopamine in substantia Nigra
    • involuntary movement
  67. autonomioc system
    both divisions (parasympathetic and sympathetic) innervate most effector organs.
  68. what are the 2 divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
    • parasympathetic: rest and digest
    • sympathetic: fight or flight
  69. what is the main function of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    To regulate and maintain homeostasis
  70. preganglionic neuron:
    the preganglionic neurons are short and called 'cholinergic neurons'.
  71. postganglionic neurons
     postganglionic ones are long ending and embedded in the receptor sites and called 'adrenergic neurons'.
  72. what are the effector organs under the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • cardiac
    • smooth muscle
    • glands
    • adapose tissue
  73. Presympathetic Nervous system 
    short pregang. and long postgang.
  74. parasympathetic nervous system
    long pregang and short postgang
  75. adrenal glands are located----
    above the kidneys
  76. parasympathetic nerves
    cranial nerves x Vagus nerves controls what happens in viceral organs.
  77. efferent fibers are part of the ------ nervous system
    autonomic
  78. afferent fibers transmit info from ------ receptors to the ----
    viceral, CNS
  79. colinergic releases ___
    ACH
  80. adronergic releases_______or______
    Epinepherine or norepinepherine
  81. Where is Beta 1 located?
    Cardiac only
  82. Alpha 1
    Excitatory
  83. Beta 2
    Inhibatory
  84. beta 2 and alpha 1 can be found in?
    • smooth muscles
    • glands
    • adapose tissue (fat)
  85. What adronergice receptor would you find on the smooth muscle surrounding blood vessels going or "feeding" skeletal muscles? 
    Beta 2
  86. What adronergice receptor would you find on the stomach?
    Beta 2
  87. What adronergice receptor would you find on the smooth muscle surrounding blood vessels going to the viseral organs?
    Alpha 1
  88. What adronergice receptor would you find on the smooth muscle surrounding your bronchials?
    Beta 2
  89. musclenritic receptors are ______ receptors found on receptor organs
    cholinergic
  90. nicotinic receptors are excitatory receptors that are found
    motor nuron, skeletal, muscle
  91. what are 5 proteins that you need to know about
    • sodium potassium pump that pumps sodium out
    • voltage gated channels
    • potassium out
    • sodium in
    • leak chanels sodium in potassium out
  92. refactory period
    reagions where we can not open sodium channels.  once it is open you cant have another action potential again.
  93. absolute refactory period:
    no action potential
  94. relative refactory period:
    can have another action potential but it will require more stimulius

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