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- Recognize not only what a text says,
- but also how that text portrays the subject matter.
to supply with critical or explanatory notes; a form of active reading
- Evaluate purpose for reading
- Read with pencil in hand
- Read with intention of locating important ideas
- Review your marks after you read the selection
A well-annotated text will accomplish all of the following:
- •clearly identify where important ideas and information are located
- •express the main ideas of a text
- •trace the development of ideas/arguments throughout a text
- •introduce a few of the reader’s thoughts and reactions
What do I look for when I annotate?
- What you will probably be expected to know about the
- reading once you have completed it. Concider:
- Paraphrase/Summary of Main Ideas - what is actually being said.
- Descriptive Outline – what techniques the writer uses
- Your Comments/Responses – your initial response/points of confusion
- Add to the reading experience and should not be too disruptive.
- Level "A" Annotation
- Annotative markings and comments apparent in evey chapter on many pages(80 %)
- Clear focus on Author's Craft.(style)
the act of using symbols to point out main ideas or points of import as you read and re-read a text; a form of annotating.
Highlighting or underlining
Makes it easier to review material, and is a good way of picking out specific language within a text that you may want to cite or quote in a piece of writing.
Cons of highlighting or underlining
- Tendency to highlight more information than necessary.
- Least active form of annotating
- Can become a postponement of thinking and interacting with ideas in texts.
to say something in a different way, or to explain something to your reader/audience.
- Keeps your paper from being overloaded with quotes.
- To say something in a way that you think will be more understandable to your reader.
- Gathering alot of information into a relatively short statement.
- Main point important details are not.
- Putting another person's words directly into your own text.
- Quote texts when wording is worth repeating, when you
- want to cite the exact words of a KNOWN AUTHORITY on your topic, when you want to cite other's opinions to challenge or disagree, or to place emphasis.
Shows the organization of a piece of writing, breaking it down to show where ideas are introduced, where they are developed, and where any turns in the development occur.
Discriptive outline can include
- •Summarizing a topic/argument/etc.
- •Introducing an idea
- •Adding explanation
- •Giving examples
- •Providing factual evidence
- •Expanding or limiting the idea
- •Considering an opposing view
- •Dismissing a contrary view
- •Creating a transition
- •Stating a conclusion
- A collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic.
- Writer stays on track during drafting and revision.
- Assists your readers in following a piece of writing.
- Minimum 3 sentences, well developed 5 sentences.
Basic rule for paragraphs
One idea to one paragraph
Four Main Elements of a Paragraph
- Topic sentence
- Adequete developement
The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus.
- The trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader.
- correct grammer
- subject verb agreement
- A sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with.
- first sentence of paragraph
- connects with thesis statement
- TRANSITION + THESIS LINK + SUPPORT = TOPIC SENTENCE
- Deals with the level of discussion, understanding and acknowledging complexities.
- In a paragraph, the topic should be discussed fully and
Methods to make sure your paragraph is well-developed
- •Use examples and illustrations
- •Cite data (facts, statistics,evidence, details, and others)
- •Examine testimony (what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases)
- •Define terms in the paragraph
- •Compare and contrast
- •Evaluate causes and reasons
- •Examine effects and consequences
- •Analyze the topic
- •Describe the topic
- •Offer a chronology of an event (time; in informative writing)
A Paragraph will traditionally look like this:
- •Claim/Topic Sentence (creates focus)
- •Reference/Evidence (creates Development)
- •Discussion (creates clarity and serves as a way to hear the author/writer’s voice)
Any essay you write, traditionally, will have the following:
- •I. Introduction
- A.Thesis Statement will be the last sentence of your Introduction.
- II. Body 1
- 1. Claim
- 2. Reference/Evidence
- 3. Discussion
- III. Body 2
- IV. Body 3
- V. Conclusion
- 1. Paraphrase Thesis
- 2. Summarize Main Points
- 3. Create a significance for your reader
- Helps the reader distinguish between your words and
- what the text has to say.
- admits, confirms, suggests
- that the verbs listed are in present tense
- A parenthetical reference to the author and the page number where your passage can be found.
- An marks for the reader where the text’s ideas end
Long (block) quote
three or four lines of prose (about 30 words or more) no quotation marks indented block. Period comes before the in-text citation.
Steps for an In-text Citation
- 1)Type out your quote.
- 2)Put quotation marks at the beginning and end of quote.
- 3)At the end of the quote, after the quotation marks, begin your parentheses.
- 4)In the parentheses, type the author’s last name and just the number of the page.
- 5)End the parenthetical, then put a period on the
- outside to end the sentence.
Work cited page
- A work cited page is an alphabetical list of sources that provides the reader with all the information so that he or
- she can find the source if they would like.
- The work cited page can be found on a page after you have completed the essay.
Parts of a Works Cited Page
- 1)The heading (with page numbers in upper right corner).
- 2)The bibliographical entry
- 3)The handing indent