Psych chp. 6/3

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Psych chp. 6/3
2012-10-08 13:46:37

Chapter 3 and 6. perception and sensation and consciousness
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  1. Stimulus
    any aspect of the world that could potentially affect our behavior or conscious experience
  2. Sensation
    the process by which sensory receptors recieve and represent stimuli
  3. Transduction
    transferring genetic material from one cell to another 
  4. Perception
    the process of organizing, recognizing, and interpretting sensory information
  5. Prosopagnosia
    can look at the face but can't recognize it

    "face blindness"
  6. "bottom-up"
    starts with elements and builds the whole

    sensation --> perception
  7. "top- down"
    experience, knowledge, and expectations guide the process

    expectation --> perception
  8. absolute threshold
    minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time
  9. Weber's Law
    change in the stimulus that will be noticeable is a constant ratio of the original stimulus
  10. wavelength
    frequency and color
  11. amplitude
    height of wave and brightness
  12. cornea
    light enters the through this clear, protective structure
  13. iris
    the light passes through this after ther cornea 
  14. Fovea
    light rays are focused on the back of the eye by the
  15. cones
    sees colors, and are used to see in the fine detail
  16. rods
    sees darkness, and helps with peripheral vision
  17. fovea
    cones are located here and the visual notice is really high
  18. Trichromatic Theory
    the 3 colors (red, blue, green) all mis with each other in their cones to make certain colors
  19. opponent-process
    • blue/yellow perception
    • red/green perception
    • shows the opposites
  20. afterimage affect
    the opposite of colors stay after the image is gone and the color switches
  21. Basilar membrane
    tight membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves
  22. Cochlea
    inner ear contains a coiled, fluid-filled tube called
  23. hair cells
    line the surface of the cochlea and they bend and transduce sound waves into action potentials
  24. Kinethesis
    sense of the position and movement of your body parts
  25. Vestibular
    detects the position and movement of your body parts
  26. nociceptors
    receptors for pain and they send signals down two different pathways
  27. gate-contol theory
    sensitively to pain is influenced by the opening or closing of neuroligical "gates" in the spinal cord
  28. 5 basic taste sensations
    • salty
    • sweet
    • bitter
    • sour
    • umami
  29. sensory interaction
    influence of one sense on another
  30. Synethesia
    cross sensory experience
  31. neonatal synthesia
    theory that synthesia is normal in infancy
  32. Figure and Ground
    tendency to group some sensations into "figure" that stands out against background
  33. Proximity
    grouping together with rows/lines of the same object
  34. Similarity
    group together with color and shapes
  35. Continuity
    path ways and going the way that seems right
  36. Closure
    finishing a picture with holes in it automatically
  37. connectedness
    • perception of uniform/ linked spots, lines or areas;
    • they appear to be in 1 single unit
  38. retinal disparity
    • due to eyes inches apart the brain sees different pictures cause if the retina moving
    • increases with distance
  39. Convergance
    with close objects the eyes are angled inward ad its a total different image due to retina lengths and it decreases over distance
  40. linear perspective
    parallel lines strectch to the horizon, as they connect it means it is farther away
  41. texture gradient
    fine detail is up close and when it gets blurry it means it's far away
  42. Interposition
    blocking the view of something else which puts it closer
  43. relative height
    higher in visual field= further away
  44. light and shadow
    • brighter= closer to light source
    • dim= futher away
  45. perceptual constancy
    despite different images hitting out retinas, we typically experience objects as having consistent shapes, sizes, brightness, and color
  46. perceptual adaptation
    ability to adjust to a displaced or inverted visual field
  47. perceptual set
    readiness or expectancy to perceive a stimulus a certain way
  48. extrasensory perception
    the contraversal claim that perception can occur part from sensory input, includes teepathy, clauroyance, and prerecognition
  49. dual processing
    conscious and unconscious attention when letting things into the brain
  50. parallel processing
    automatically coming in
  51. serial processing
    only focus on 1 thing at a time
  52. dichotic listening task
    • two messages, one in each ear
    • shadow one and ignore the other
  53. selective attention
    ability to pay attention to only one voice among many
  54. inattentional blindness
    failure to see visible objects when attention is preoccupied
  55. circadian rythm
    24 hour biological clock
  56. melatonin
    hormone involved in sleep
  57. hypnagogic state
    sensory experiences that occur w/o a sensory stimulus
  58. sleep spinales
    breif bursts of brain activity that occur during stage 2
  59. slow wave
    stage 3+4/ slow+large
  60. REM sleep
    90 min. in sleep; eyes darting and brain waves resemble those of stage 1 + wakefulness
  61. rem rebound
    lengthening and increasing frequency and depth of REM sleep which occurs after sleep deprivation
  62. protection (sleep)
    keep us from being active during dangerous times
  63. recuperation (sleep)
    recharge, recover from physical/ mental fatigue
  64. consolidatio of memories (sleep)
    transfer information into long term memory
  65. effects of sleep deprivation
    • impaired function of immune system
    • obesity
    • increased susceptibility to mistakes
  66. insonmia
    persistant difficulty to fall and stay asleep
  67. narcolepsey
    uncontrollable sleep attacks
  68. sleep apnea
    stop breathing during sleep; usually has to do with obesity
  69. night terrors
    • extreme friht; rapid heart beat and breathing
    • happens during stage 4
  70. manifest content
    remembered story line of dream
  71. lantent manifest
    underlying manifest of dreaming
  72. activation synthesis
    making sense of random neural activity
  73. physiological function
    stimulate meurons; prevent atrophy
  74. information processing
    memory consolidation
  75. hypnosis
    state of heightened ability
  76. posthypontic suggestions
    suggestion made to a bypnotised person that is specified to an action that could happen after being out of the trance
  77. divided consciousness theory
    suggests that hypnosis is simply an extension of normal social behavior, rather than an altered state of consciousness
  78. state of dissociation
    split of consciousness which allows some thoughts/actions to occur simutamously with others
  79. Psychoactive drug
    drugs that alter moods and perceptions
  80. Tolerance
    diminishing effect of a drug with the regular use of a dose
  81. physical dependence
    person uses a drug to avoid withdrawal effects
  82. psychological dependence
    person continues to take drug to relieve negative emotions
  83. depressants
    • reduce activity of nervous system
    • slow body functions
    • ex. alcohol, barbituates(tranquilizers), opiates (opium, morphine, herion)
  84. Stimulants
    • excile neural activity, speeds up body functions
    • ex. methamphetamine, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, MDMA (ecstacy)
  85. Hallucingens
    • distort perception, may evoke hallucinations
    • ex. LSD (acid), THC (marijuana)
  86. biological factors
    documented effects of heredity on use of alcohol
  87. Psychological factors
    stress, depression, hopelessness, anger, anxiety
  88. Social factors
    peer influence (affects attitudes as well as availibility of drugs)