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An identifiable writing rule of thumb, convention, or structure used in literature and storytelling.
- Figures of speech
- Rhetorical Devices
- Plot devices
An object or character in a story whose purpose is to advance the plot
of the story or to overcome a difficulty
in the plot.
- Deus ex Machina: originates in the Greek tragedy, an ending where an improbable events brings the story to a conclusion
Deathtrap: overly complicated killing of a character used solely to provide a means of escape
Techniques used in persuasion
Examples: assertion (statement of belief), claim (what the author is trying to prove), credibility, data, diction, ethical appeal (persuasion by presenting the writer as a competent, sincere, and fair person), evidence, factual evidence, fallacy (error in reasoning), generalization, etc.
Persuasive Essays: Types of Appeal
- * Appeal to Reason
- * Appeal to Emotion
- * Appeal to Morality
Persuasive Essays: Types of Persuasive Speech
- * Propositions of Fact
- * Propositions of Value
- * Propositions of Problem
- * Propositions of Policy
Persuasive Essays: Logical Fallacies
- * Bandwagon
- * Red Herring
- * Glittering Generalities
- * Ad Hominem
Persuasive Essays: Advertising Techniques
* Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Persuasive Essays: Logical Argument
- * inductive reasoning
- * deductive reasoning
- * syllogisms
- * analogies
Persuasive Essays: Classical Argument
- * claim
- * qualifiers
- * rules of evidence
- * warrant
Appeal to Ethics
Used most often in political advertisements.
Appeal to a person's or thing's image
- Can be used in a letter of compaint as an effective argument:
- "I've always thought of your company as ______, but..."
Appeal to Emotions
An appeal made to emotions
Used often in advertising
Example: advertising company makes you fear what would happen if ____
Appeal to logic
An appeal made to one's ability to reason
"If this is so, then you can conclude this."
Supporting claims with reason (logos)
- * Use concrete, specific data and evidence
- * Types of evidence: facts, expert opinions or quotes, definitions, statistics, examples, loaded words used in emotional appeals, present and argue against opposition
- * Ends with a call to action
Supporting claims with ethics (ethos)
- * Convince readers that you are fair, honest, and well informed to earn their trust
- * Avoid use of negatively-charged loaded words
Supporting claims with emotion (pathos)
- * Description or narration of an example from experience
- * Demonstrate your point of view so that the reader values it
- * Choose words carefully
Reasoning that begins with specifics and moves toward a generalization
Example: Several clubs have reported difficulty completing their business during lunch period. This proves that lunch periods should be longer.
Reasoning that starts with a general observation then moves to specifics
Example: When people hurry, inefficiency and poor communication are the results. Under current conditions clubs must hurry at lunch time meetings. Therefore, lunch period should be lengthened to allow for better club meetings.
Logical Fallacy: Ad Hominem
"against the man" A claim or argument is rejected because of some irrelevant fact about the person presenting the claim
- Person A makes claim X
- Person B makes and attack on person A
- Therefore Person A's claim is false
Logical Fallacy: Bandwagon
The threat of rejection by one's peers is substituted for evidence in an argument.
- Joe: "Bill, I know you think that 1+1=2. But we don't accept that sort of thing in our group. "
- Bill: "I was just joking. Of course I don't believe that."
Logical Fallacy: Red Herring
An irrelevant topic is brought up to divert attention from the original issue
- Topic A is under discussion
- Topic B is brought up but turns out to be completely irrelevant
- Topic A is abandoned