When the Depression first began, workers initially looked to their employers for help, and many placed their faith in company unions that employers sponsored.
But such hopes were quickly disappointed, and works began to form their own unions.
They believed that only a legally binding collective bargaining agreement negotiated by an independent union could protect them from managerial favoritism and arbitrariness.
- Employers resisted these efforts fiercely.
- In response, workers occupied factories, fought with police, engaged in mass picketing, and staged industry-wide strikes in support of their demand for union recognition.
Type of bargaining that occurs when unions negotiate on behalf of workers with employers over wages, hours, fringe benefits such as health insurance, and working conditions.