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  1. Where is hematopoietic tissue (red marow) found?
    • within the trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones
    • diploe of flat bones
  2. 4 major cell types of bone tissue
    • osteogenic cells
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
    • osteoclasts
  3. What is the structural unite of compact bone
  4. Hyaline function
    provides firm support with some felxibility
  5. articular cartilages cover what
    ends of bones at movable joints
  6. costal cartilages do what
    connect ribs to the sternum
  7. hyaline provides support to which areas
    • resp tract
    • voice box
    • nasal areas
  8. fibrocartilage is found where
    • padlike cartilages of the knee
    • discs between vertebrae
  9. as people get older, fibrocartilage decreases (they shrink in height)
  10. bones are organs
  11. description of long bones
    • elongated with shaft + 2 ends
    • function as levers
  12. description of short bones
    • roughly cube shaped (ankle and wrist bones)
    • gliding motion
  13. description of flat bones
    • skull, ribs, sternum, scapula, shoulder blade
    • muscle attachment
  14. irregular bones are found where
    • vetertebra
    • hip bones
    • tings "fit" into irregularity
  15. description of compact bone
    • smooth and solid in appearance
    • outer casing tough filled with minerals (ECF)
  16. description of spongy bone
    • honeycomb
    • spaces form of protection, diffuse force
    • example: skull bone
  17. shaft of long bone
  18. expanded end area of long bone
    • epiphysis
    • broadens to alleviate stress
    • contains red marrow & will eventually become yellow and not produce blood cell
    • articular cartilage (cushioning)
  19. long bones contain
    • diaphysis
    • epiphysis
    • blood vessels
    • medullary cavity
    • membranes
  20. what is in the medullary avity
    yellow and red marrow
  21. periosteum is found where
    around outside of bone except ends that have articular cartilage
  22. sharpeys fibers are found where
    tendon and ligament attachment
  23. compact and spongy both have what
    red bone marrow
  24. sturcutre of shortflat and irregular bones
    sandwhich: thin outside compact layers with spongy bone in between
  25. bone consists of what
    extracellular matrix secreted by bone cells and they are responsible for maintaining and remodeling
  26. osteogenic cells are used to make osteoblast
  27. what are bone forming cells and deposit bone matrix
  28. build up of matrix is called what
    ossification or osteogenesis
  29. osteoblasts do what?
    • synthesize collagen
    • accumulate calcium and phosphate
  30. what are mature bone cells called
  31. what do osteocytes do
    function to maintain existing matrix
  32. what are bone destroying cells
  33. osteoclasts function as
    • responsible for breakdown and reabsorption of bone matrix
    • secrete H and enzymes to breakdown mineralized bone matrix
    • calcium and phosphate are freed
  34. osteoclasts are multinucleate, have lysosomes (digestive enzymes)
  35. compact bone contain
    • osteon
    • lamella
    • central canal
    • perforating cnals
    • canaliculi
    • cell types (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, lacunae)
  36. circumferential lamellae do what
    • they go around the bone as whole not individual osteons.
    • used to widen a bone
  37. description of spongy bone
    • less dense thatn compact bone
    • lighter in weight
    • consists of trabeculae with spaces in between
    • align precisely along lines of stress and help the bone resists stress as much as possible
  38. functional anatomy of bone matrix
    felxibility (collagen) and strength (calcium salts/minerals)
  39. when fontanels stop growing, they are called
  40. there are NO osteons present in which type of bone
  41. organic components of bone
    cells (osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts) 
  42. organic component
  43. intramembranous ossification is what
    • the formation of cranial bones of the skill (frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal) and the clavicles
  44. Flat bones of the skill contain
    • intramembranous ossification
    • grown from inside point outward
  45. Endochondral bone grown
    • most bones inferior to skull
    • a model for long bone growth
  46. calcifies epiphyseal line at 18 yrs (female) and 21 yrs (male)
  47. endochondral ossification in a long bone
    • 1. bone collar forms around hyaline cartilage
    • 2. cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and develops cavities
    • 3. the periosteal bud invades the internal cavities and spongy bone begins to form
    • 4. the diaphysis elongates and a medullary cavity forms as ossification continues. 
    • 5. the epiphyses ossify
  48. vitamin d deficiency include:
    • rickets (childhood demineralization of bone; formative deformities)
    • osteomalacia (adult form with softening of bone)
  49. Calcium is what
    absorption if Vitamin D dependant
  50. Vitamin C - Lack of normal collagen synthesis is called
    • scurvy
    • wound healing impaired, loose teeth, etc
  51. 3 types hormones affecting bone growth
    • growth hormone
    • thyroid hormone
    • sex hormones
  52. growing bones widen as they lengthen.
    cartilages bones increase in thickness
  53. testosterone does what
    polongs growth at epiphyseal plates
  54. bone deposit and bone resorption occur where
    suface of the periosteum and endosteum
  55. bone deposit occurs when
    wherever bone is injured or added bone strength is required
  56. bone resorption os accomplished by
  57. what is nondisplaced fracture
    bone end srain their normal position
  58. what is displaced fracture
    bone ends are out of normal alignment
  59. linear fracture
    break parallels the long axis
  60. transverse fractur
    if the break if perpendicular to the bones long axis
  61. open (compound) fracture
    when bone ends penetrate the skin
  62. how is a fracture treated
    redcution (realignment of the bone)
  63. closed (external) reduction
    bone ends are coaxed into position by Md hands
  64. open (internal) reduction
     bone ends are secred together surgically with pins or wires
  65. 4 stages of repair in a simple fracture
    • 1. hematoma forms
    • 2. fribrocartilaginous callus forms
    • 3. bony callus forms
    • 4. bone remodeling occurs
Card Set:
2012-10-08 01:13:18

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