Psychology Chapter 7

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  1. Cognition
    The mental activities involved in aquiring, retaining, and using knowledge.
  2. Thinking
    The manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions.
  3. Mental Image
    A mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present. 
  4. Concept
    A mental category of objects or ideas based on properties they share.
  5. Formal Concept
    A mental category that is formed by learning the rules or features that define it. 
  6. Natural Concept
    A mental category that is formed as a result of everyday experience.
  7. Prototype
    The most typical instance of a particular concept. 
  8. Exemplars
    Individual instances of a concept or category, held in memory. 
  9. Problem Solving
    Thinking and behavior directed toward attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work.
  10. Trial and Error
    A problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work. 
  11. Algorithm
    A problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method that inevitably produces the correct solution. 
  12. Heuristic
    A problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions.
  13. Insight
    The sudden realization of how a problem can be solved.
  14. Intuition
    Coming to a conclusion or making a judgement without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved.
  15. Guiding Stage (Intuition)
    • The first stage. 
    • You unconsciously perceive a pattern in the information you are considering.
  16. Integrative Stage (Intuition)
    • The second stage. 
    • A representation of the pattern becomes conscious in the form of a hunch or hypothesis.
  17. Functional Fixedness
    The tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way.
  18. Mental Set
    The tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past. 
  19. Single-Feature Model
    (Decision Making Strategies)
    • In order to simplify the choice amony many alternatives, a decision is based on one single feature. 
    • If a decision is important or complex, making decisions on the basis of just one single feature can increase the riskiness of the decision.
  20. The Additive Model 
    (Decision Making Strategies)
    • Systematically evaluate the important features of each alternative for complex decisions. 
    • 1. Generate a list of factors most important to you. 
    • 2. Rate each alternative on each factor using an arbitrary scale. 
    • 3. Add up the ratings for each alternative. 
    • Provides a logical strategy for identifying the most acceptable choice from a range of possible decisions. 
  21. The Elimination by Aspects Model 
    (Decision Making Strategies)
    • Evaluate all the alternatives one characteristic at a time, typically starting with the most imporant feature. 
    • Evaluating all the alternatives and removing each one if it fails to meet that criterion, you can narrow it down until there is only one left. 
    • You can also narrow it down to a few alternatives and then use the additive model.
  22. Availability Heuristic 
    (Decision Making Strategies)
    A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated on the basis of how readily available other instances of the event are in memory. 
  23. Representativeness Heuristic
    (Decision Making Strategies)
    A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by comparing how similar it is to the prototype of the event. 
  24. Language
    A system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements. 
  25. Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
    • The hypothesis that differences among languages cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers.
    • Whorfian Hypothesis
  26. Animal Cognition
    The study of animal learning, memory, thinking, and language; also called comparative cognition.
  27. Intelligence
    The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
  28. Mental Age
    A measurement of intelligence in which an individual's mental level is expressed in terms of the average abilities of a given age group. 
  29. Intelligence Quotient
    A measure of general intelligence derived by comparing an individual's score with the scores of others in the same age group. 
  30. Achievement Test
    A test designed to measure a person's level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area
  31. Aptitude Test
    A test designed to assess a person's capacity to benefit from education or training.
  32. Standardization
    The administration of a test to a large, representative sample of people under uniform conditions for the purpose of establishing norms. 
  33. Normal Curve or Normal Distribution
    A bell-shaped distribution of individual differences in a normal population in which most scores cluster around the average score.
  34. Reliability
    The ability of a test to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar conditions. 
  35. Validity
    The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure.
  36. Charles Spearman
    Intelligence is a general ability (g factor)

    intelligence can be described as a single measure of general cognitive ability (the g factor) and so can accurately be expressed by a single number like the IQ score. Terman’s approach follows this tradition.
  37. factor or general intelligence
    The notion of a general intelligence factor that is responsible for a person's overall performance on tests of mental ability.
  38. Louis L. Thurstone 
    disagreed with Spearman. Believed in seven different “primary mental abilities” like verbal comprehension, numerical ability, reasoning, and perceptual speed. The g factor simply an overall average score and less important than an individual’s specific pattern of mental abilities. 
  39. Howard Gardner
    multiple intelligences. Mental abilities are independent of each other and cannot be accurately reflected in a single measure of intelligence. Intelligence must be defined within the context of a particular culture. Eight distinct, independent intelligences
  40. Linguistic intelligence
    adept use of language
  41. Logical-mathematical intelligence 
    logical, mathematical, and scientific ability
  42. Musical intelligence 
    ability to create, synthesize, or perform music
  43. Spatial intelligence
    ability to mentally visualize the relationships of objects or movements
  44. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
    control of bodily motions and capacity to handle objects skillfully
  45. Interpersonal intelligence
    understanding of other people’s emotions, motives, and intentions
  46. Intrapersonal intelligence
    understanding of one’s own emotions, motives, and intentions
  47. Naturalist intelligence
    ability to discern patterns in nature
  48. Robert Sternberg
    emphasizes both the universal aspects of intelligent behavior and the importance of adapting to a particular social and cultural environment. Has proposed successful intelligence, which involves three distinct types of mental abilities
  49. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
    Robert Sternberg's theory that there are three distinct forms of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical
  50. Analytic
    the mental processes used in learning how to solve problems
  51. Creative Intelligence
    the ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge
  52. Practical intelligence
    the ability to adapt to the environment – street smarts. Behaviors that reflect practical intelligence can vary depending on the particular situation, environment, or culture.
  53. Autism
    Behavioral syndrome associated with differences in brain functioning and sensory responses, and characterized by impaired social interaction, impaired verbal and non-verbal communication skills, repetitive or odd motor behaviors, and highly restricted interests and routines.
  54. Asperger's syndrome
    Behavioral syndrome characterized by varying degrees of difficulty in social and conversational skills but normal-to-above-average intelligence and language development; often accompanied by obsessive preoccupation with particular topics or routines.
  55. Mental Retardation
    Disorder characterized by intellectual function that is significantly below average, usually defined as a measured IQ of 70 or below, and that is caused by brain injury, disease or a genetic disorder.
  56. Heritability
    The percentage of variation within a given population that is due to heredity
  57. Stereotype threat
    A psychological predicament in which fear that you will be evaluated in terms of a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong creates anxiety and self-doubt, lowering performance in a particular domain that is important to you.
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Psychology Chapter 7
2012-10-09 22:31:04
Thinking Language Intelligence

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