Bio 110-03 chap 4 and 5 cards.txt

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Bio 110-03 chap 4 and 5 cards.txt
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Bio 110-03 chap 4 and 5 cards
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  1. Cell Theory
    • 1. Every living organism is comprised of cells.
    • 2. The cell is the smallest living unit.
    • 3. Cells come from preexisting cells
    • 4. Cells contain DNA
  2. Prokaryotic cells
    • Archaeans and bacteria
    • Have few if any internal membrane & enclosed compartments
    • Are the smallest and structurally simplest cells
    • Protein filaments under the plasma membrane impart shape to the cell
  3. Eukaryotic cells
    • Protists plants fungi and animal
    • Have a (true) nucleus and other membrane enclosed compartments
    • They differ in internal parts and surface specializations.
  4. Cytoskeleton key concepts
    Diverse protein filaments reinforce a cell’s shape and keep its parts organized. As some filaments lengthen and shorten, they move cell structures or the whole cell.
  5. First Microscope
    Invented by Hans and Zacharias Janssen 1590
  6. Robert Hooke
    Examined a thinly sliced cork from a mature tree and named the tiny compartments cellulae coining the term cell.
  7. Robert Brown
    First to identify a plant nucleus
  8. Matthias Schleiden
    Hypothesized a plant cell is an independent living unit
  9. Rudolf Virchow
    Discovered that cells divide into descendant cells
  10. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
    The first to observe living microscopic “animalcules” and “beasties”
  11. Plasma Membrane
    • The cell's outer membrane
    • Selectively controls the movement of materials in and out of the cytoplasm
    • It separates metabolic activities from events outside of the cell, but does not isolate the cell's interior
  12. Nucleus
    Double-membraned sac holding a eukaryotic cell's DNA
  13. Nucleoid
    Region of cytoplasm where the DNA is concentrated
  14. Cytoplasm
    • Semifluid mixture of water, sugars, ions, and proteins between the plasma membrane and the region of DNA
    • Cell compartments are suspended in cytoplasm
  15. Ribosomes
    Structures on which proteins (polypeptides) are built
  16. Lipid Bilayer
    • Double layer of lipids organized so that their hydrophobic tails are sandwiched between their hydrophilic heads
    • Forms the structural framework of all cell membranes
  17. Surface-to-volume ration
    A physical relationship that constrains increases in cell size and shape
  18. What are the most abundant type of lipid in cell membranes.
    Phospholipids
  19. What are some protein cell functions? (Not all inclusive)
    • They...
    • -form channels through a bilayer
    • -pump substances across the bilayer
  20. Cell wall
    • Surrounds the plasma membrane of nearly all prokaryotes
    • Permeable to dissolved substances: composed of protein or peptidoglycan
    • Cell walls of most bacteria consist of peptidoglycan
    • Consists of proteins
  21. Peptidoglycan
    Polymer of cross linked peptides and polysaccharides
  22. Capsule
    • Formed of sticky polysaccharides
    • Slime layer
    • Helps cells adhere to many types of surfaces
    • Protect cell from predators and toxins
  23. Flagellum
    • Slender cellular structures used for motion.
    • (Organized array of microtubules - eukaryotic)
  24. Pilus
    • Help cells cling to or move across surfaces
    • (Sex) pilus attaches to another cell to transfer genetic material from one cell to the other
  25. Plasmids
    Small circles of DNA that carry a few genes that confer advantages, such as resistance to antibiotics
  26. Biofilm
    • Shared mass of slime composed of secreted polysaccharides and glycoproteins upon which communities of bacteria live
    • May include bacteria, algae, fungi, protest, and archaeans
  27. Benefits of the biofilm
    • Serves as permanent scaffolding
    • Species break down toxic chemicals allowing other, more sensitive, species to thrive
    • Waste products of some species serve as building materials for others
  28. Organelle
    Structure that carries out a specialized function inside a cell
  29. Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells
    • Nucleus
    • ER
    • Golgi body
    • Vesicles
    • Mitochondrion
    • Chloroplast
    • Lysosome
    • Peroxisome
    • Vacuole
    • Ribosomes
    • Centriole
  30. Nucleus function
    Protect and control access to DNA
  31. ER function
    Routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipid; other tasks
  32. Golgi body function
    Modifying new polypeptide chains; sorting, shipping proteins and lipids
  33. Vesicles function
    Transporting, storing or digesting substances in a cell; other functions
  34. Mitochondrion function
    • Making ATP by sugar breakdown called aerobic respiration
    • Two membrane
    • Have their own DNA
    • Are all Maternal
  35. Chloroplast function
    • Making sugars in plants, some protists
    • Photosynthetic organelle
  36. Lysosome function
    Intercellular digestion
  37. Peroxisome function
    Inactivating toxins
  38. Vacuole function
    Storage
  39. Ribosomes function
    Assembling polypeptide chains
  40. Centriole function
    Anchor for cytoskeleton
  41. Components of the Nucleus
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Nucleoplasm
    • Nucleolus
    • Chromatin
    • Chromosome
  42. Chromosome
    Circular DNA molecule and many proteins associated with it
  43. Nuclear envelope
    Pore-riddled double membrane that controls which substances enter and leave the nucleus
  44. Nucleoplasm
    Semifluid interior portion of the nucleus
  45. Nucleolus
    Rounded mass of proteins and copies of genes for ribosomal RNA used to construct ribosomal subunits
  46. Chromatin
    Total collection of all DNA molecules and associated proteins in the nucleus; all of the cell's chromosomes
  47. Chromosome appearance
    • When a cell is not dividing - grainy
    • Preparing for division - DNA in each is copied or duplicated
    • During division – Condense
  48. Endomembrane System
    • A series of interacting organelles between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
    • Its main function is to make lipids, enzymes, and proteins for secretion or insertion into cell membranes.
    • It also destroys toxins, recycles wastes, and has other specialized functions.
  49. Endomembrane System (Make up)
    • Nucleus
    • Rough ER
    • Vesicles
    • Smooth ER
    • Golgi Body
    • Plasma Membrane
  50. Rough ER
    • Contains ribosomes which synthesize polypeptide chains, which extrude into the interior of the ER.
    • The proteins fold and take on their tertiary structure.
  51. Smooth ER
    • Has no ribosomes
    • Uses enzymes to make the cell membrane lipids.
    • Breaks down carbohydrates, fatty acids and some drugs and poisons
  52. Vesicles
    • Small membrane enclosed saclike organelle.
    • Transport substances from one organelle to another or to and from plasma membrane
  53. Golgi Body
    • Sort modify and transport proteins
    • Attach phosphate groups
    • Cleave polypeptide chains
  54. Lysosomes
    Vesicles that contain powerful digestive enzymes to digest the content of vacuoles carrying particles or molecules for disposal
  55. Central Vacuole
    Keeps plant cells and structures firm
  56. Cytoskeleton
    • Basis of eukaryotic cell shape, internal structure and movement
    • Interconnected system of many protein filaments
    • Reinforce, organize and move cell structures and the whole cell
  57. Microtubules
    • Long hollow cylinders that consist of subunits of the protein tubulin
    • For dynamic scaffolding for many cellular process, rapidly assembling when they are needed, disassembling when they are not.
    • Example:
    • Form in the growing end of a young nerve cell support and guide its lengthening in a particular direction
  58. Microfilaments
    • Fibers that consist primarily of subunits of the globular protein actin
    • Strengthen or change the shape of eukaryotic cells
    • Make up the cell cortex
    • Example:
    • Microfilaments of myosin and actin interact in muscle cells to bring about contraction
  59. Intermediate filaments
    • Strengthen and maintain cell and tissue structures
    • Example:
    • Lamins form a layer that structurally supports the inner surface of the nuclear envelope.
  60. Kinesin
    A motor protein used to move chloroplasts toward or away from a light source
  61. Dynein
    A motor protein used to bend a flagellum
  62. Primary wall
    The main constituent of a plant’s primary cell wall
  63. Secondary wall
    Layers of firm material secreted onto the primary cell wall’s inner surface that strengthen the wall and maintain its shape
  64. Tight junctions
    Seal abutting cells that line the outer surfaces and internal cavities of animals so no fluids can pass between them
  65. Adhering junctions
    Anchor cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix
  66. Gap junctions
    Open channels that connect the cytoplasm of neighboring animal cells
  67. Plasmodesmata
    Cytoplamic channels that cross the cell walls and join neighboring plant cells
  68. Middle lamella
    A sticky layer in between the primary walls of adjoining cells
  69. Pectin
    Substance a young plant cell first secretes onto the outer surface of its plasma membrane
  70. Cellulose
    The main constituent of a plant’s primary cell wall
  71. lignin
    A strong waterproof component of the secondary cell walls of older stems and roots
  72. Cuticle
    A protective body covering made of cell secretions
  73. Extracellular matrix (ECM)
    Nonliving mixture of fibrous proteins and polysaccharides surrounding the cells that secrete it

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