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What are some charachteristics of input variables?
- 1. Members share basic values and beleifes about the groups purpose and each other .
- 2. divergence of backgrounds and perspectives with a balance between diversity and similarity.
- 3. purpose and goals understood by and accepted by all
- 4. resources needed to achive group goals are available
- 5. relationships to other groups and organizations are clear.
- 6. sufficient time to work
- 7. meeting place that provides for members needs and is free of distractions.
What are some charachteristics of throughput variables?
- 1. Members are dependable and reliable
- 2. Roles are stable, mutually understood, and accepted.
- 3. Members have relativaly equal status, so they can excert influence based on knowledge, ideas and skill.
- 4. Norms and values are understood and adhered to, or they are discussed openly and changed if counterproductive.
- 5. Most remarks are directed to the Group as a whole, not to individual members(no sidebar discussions).
- 6. Members are skilled and considerate when expressing themselves.
- 7. Everyone understands and shares efficiant procedures that lead to goal attainment.
What are some charachteristics of Output Variables?
- 1. Members perceive that the group purpose has been achieved.
- 2. Members are stisfied with their roles, the group process, and their relationships with other members.
- 3. High Cohesiveness
- 4. Consensus on the role and leadership structure
- 5. The parent organization is strengthened by the groups work.
How does Environmental factors affect the Group Characteristics.
- 1. The organization publicly recognizes and rewards the accomplishments of the group.
- 2. The organization supplies resources and expertise the group needs
- 3. The organization provides a supportive atmosphere.
What are the eight essential elements that determines how close a group will become?
- 1. Clarity in groups
- 2. Clearly defined roles
- 3. Clear communication
- 4. Beneficial group behavoirs
- 5. well-defined decision procedures
- 6. Balanced participation
- 7. Establish ground rules
- 8. Awareness of the group process.
Give some examples of a group that understands its purpose and goals;
- 1. Agrees on the mission
- 2. Sees the mission as workable, and if necessary, narrows the mission to a workable size
- 3. Has a clear vision and works steadily towards its goals
- 4. is clear about the larger project goals
- 5. Understands the purpose of the individual steps of the projects, meetings, discussions, and decisions
Groups operate more efficiantly if they are able to tap into everyones talent.
What are some examples of this?
- 1. Has formally designated roles for each other
- 2. Understands which roles belong to one person, which roles are shared, and how shared roles are switched
- 3. Uses each member's talent and involves everyone in the group activities so no one feels left out
Good discussion within the group depends on how well information is passed between group members. Ideally, the group should do what?
- 1. Speak clearly and directly
- 2. Be succinct-avoid long stories and examples
- 3. Avoid interupting others and talking when others are speaking
- 4. Share different types of information (sensing,thinking, and feeling statements)
What are some examples of a group which has a good decsion making process. Groups should always be aware of how they reach different decisons. Ideally a group wants to do what?
- 1. Discuss how decisions will be made.
- 2. Explore important issues by polling
- 3. Decide important issue by concensus
- 4. Test for consensus
- 5. Use data as the basis for decisions when possible
Define Self Concept
The perception we have of ourselves which allow us to shape and reshape reality from our point of view.
Give some examples of SELF CONCEPT.
- a. we learn who we are from experiances, thoughts, feelings, and needs.
- b. Self-concept allows us to conceptualize our behavoir.
- c. sel-concept is both the product and producer of perception.
What is the concept of SELF in self-concept defined as?
- a. How we picture ourselves.
- b. How others see us
- c. How we wish ourselves to be seen.
A person who is assertive, tolerant, open, and trusting has what type of self-concept about themselves?
A positive self-concept.
The examples below are examples of what type of self-concept?
a. Enhancing communication,
b. Positive about receiving feedback
They examples of a person with positive self-concept.
List some characteristics of a person with poor self image.
- a. causes that person to do poorly at things attempted
- b. Communicate Little
- c. May cause self to exaggerate and deny or be closed to new ideas.
What are some things that happen during development of SELF ?
- a. we interpret situations, events, people, or the environment.
- b. develope personality uniqueness, and a sense of respect for self.
- c. evaluate, make decisions, and establish goals
- d. We interpret our environment to confourm our values and make ourselves look good.
How we see ourselves
What are the two seperate groups that define how we see ourselves
- a. Membership groups
- b. Referance groups
What is meant by membership groups?
Groups that we belong to that are often unchangeable and acquired at birth.
a. race/ethnicity/gender/religion/social class/age
What is meant by Referance groups?
Groups that we belong to or aspire to belong
a. military experiance/affiliation with organizatons/ educational background/geographic location/marital status/parental status.
How others see us
What defines how others see you?
- Your Memberships group
- a. Defines stereotypes/view that others define us.
- b. Unchangeable because they are facts of life aquired at birth.
Explain the concept of How we would Like others to see us.
a. It is possible that a gap exist because we have pushed away the negative and unwanted parts os self.
b. Journey of awareness may expose some painful and uncomfortable facts about our stereotypes and prejudices.
- The process begining at birth, by which an individual
- a. aquires values,attitudes,goals, beliefs, perceptions, and gender roles
- b. learns expectations of society
- c. acquires sensitivity to the pressures and obligations of group life
- d. learns to get along with others
What are some sources that influence socialization?
a. Family/media/educational system/ peers and friends/community setting/national setting.
What is the most influencial agent of socialization?
What are some ways that the family influences our socialization process?
Etiquette,language,religion, and how we live and interact with other.
What are some things in the media influence our socialization process?
Television,radio,newspapers,books,advertisements,music, and the internet.
How does education influence our socialization process.
Teachers,administrators and teaching texts and techniques impose their values on children and young adults.
How does community setting influence our socialization?
It influences many of the customs, mannerisms,dialects, and holidays that we relate to.
How does Nationalsetting influence our socialization?
influences our attitude towards civil rights,work ethic ,sense of what is important, native language, feelings of patriotism, and the national holidays we observe.
What is the definition of values?
Principles or standards derived from our self-concept that guide our actions and behavoirs.
Identify the different categories that values can be placed in.
- a.Personel-love,care,courage,bravery,honesty,compassion and loyalty
- b. social-equality,justice,liberty,freedom, national pride
- c. political- public service,voting,civic responsibility,welfare, democracy
- d. economic-money focused,equal employment,stable economy,ownership of property, taxes
- e. religious-life,human dignity, freedom of worship
Define Value system.
A set of values adopted by an individual or society that influences the behavoir of the individual.
Established ways of responding to people and situations based on what we have learned(beleifs,values) and assumptions we hold. They are displayed through an outwardly displayed behavoir.
What is an ego defense mechanism?
Coping behavoirs that allows us to selectively interpret information when we challenged on a value, attitude, or belief.
What is the function of an Ego defense mechanism?
If we are exposed to information that may challenge our self-concept and, therefore, our value sytem, we may feel inner turmoil.
Values,attitudes, and beliefs stay the same.
What are some common Ego defense mechanisms?
What is meant by a catalyst for change?
when we are exposed to information that challenges our self concept. It often may take a significant emotional event.
Name some significant emotional events that may lead to a catalyst for change.
- terminal illness
- falling in/out of love
- going to war
Name the three main strategies for change.
- 1. Awareness
- 2. Increasing Awareness
- 3. Spend time in self reflection
What are some ways to setting goals for change in the socialization process?
- a. Be realistic
- b. Become self-motivated(help others do the same).