Mixed block

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Mixed block
2012-10-07 22:51:38

kaplan block
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  1. Child presents with bowing of the tibia, flattened nose, and deafness. Tx of mother to avoid this?
    • Congenital symphilis
    • Tx: Pen G
  2. Patients with septic athritis get recurrent infections with Neisseria due to?
    • Antigenic and phase variation of the pili
    • OMP I - structural, used in serotyping
    • Opa proteins - antigenic variation, adherence
    • IgA protease - colonization + cellular uptake
  3. Medullary thyroid carcinoma 
    • Parafollicular cells of the thyroid - NC cells
    • Calcitonin precipitates to form amyloid
  4. Kawasaki's disease
    • High fever for a long time
    • Palpable cervical lymph nodes
    • Desquamating rash on palms, soles and mouth

    Can damage coronary vessels causing aneurysms
  5. Reflex that disappears between 3-6 months
    • Moro reflex: extension and abduction of arms followed by flexion and adduction
    • Caused due to a startling event
  6. Reflex that disappears in 1 month
    Palmar grasp reflex: Infants hand closing over an object placed in their hand 
  7. Paget's disease - viral pathogenesis?
    • Paramyxoviruses in the osteoclasts
    • (RSV, measles)
  8. Alcoholic presents with hemorrhages around hair follicles, echymoses. Vitamin deficient?
    C (scurvy)
  9. Microvilli - what proteins affected?
    • Actin (microvilli are extensions of actin filaments)
    • Myosin (binds to actin)
  10. One hour after exercise - what increases?
    • VEGF mRNA = growth of new blood vessels decreases diffusion distance between capillaries and muscles, and improves oxygen transport
    • Decreases myoglobin O2 saturation and intracellular O2

    Few days later: increases mitochondrial volume density
  11. Body reaction to parasites
    • Coats them with IgE molecules 
    • Triggers eosinophilic-mediated cytotoxicity
    • Release of vasoactive and spasmotogenic peptides from mast cells and basophils
  12. 12 hours after exercise, mechanism working to produce glucose?
    • Hepatic gluconeogenesis
    • (first few hours = hepatic glycogenolysis)
  13. OCD tx
    • Clomipramine (TCA drug)
    • Fluoxetine (SSRI)
  14. Test to detect viral load in HIV
    Test to detect pneumonia caused by AIDs
    Test to measure progression of infection by HIV
    • PCR
    • Direct fluorescent antibody test/Methamine silver stain (P. jiroveci)
    • CD4 T cell count
  15. Celecoxib over general NSAIDs
    • Doesn't inhibit COX-1: less GI irritation and renal impairment
    • Disadvantage: Sulfa allergy
  16. Severe anemia can cause heart failure. Values in the blood?
    • Hypoxia in the tissues
    • Small arterioles and arteries dilate
    • Heart continues to pump with a greater force to allow more blood and oxygen to go to the tissues
  17. Poxvirus
    • Enveloped, DNA virus
    • Causes molluscum contagiosum
    • DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    • Replicates in the cytoplasm
  18. Cryptococcus meningitis - test?
    • Latex agglutination test to detect capsules shed in the CSF
    • (India Ink is not specific)
  19. Ashkenasi Jews associated with which diseases
    • Gauchers
    • Tay Sachs
    • (spingolipidoses)
  20. What stage of germ cell located near the basal lamina in the seminiferous tubule?
    Spermatogonia (2N cells)
  21. Baroreceptor reflex due to a decreased blood pressure
    Increased SNS leading to increased NE release - increases a1 receptors = Gq receptors increases DAG and IP3
  22. What allows emboli forming in the veins to bypass lungs and cause emboli in the arteries in the systemic circulation (e.g. brain)
    • PFO
    • (PE will produce emboli in the lungs but will not be able to bypass to go to the systemic circulation)