Renaissance Art (part 2)

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felara9614
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176154
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Renaissance Art (part 2)
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2012-10-09 22:20:00
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15th Century Northern and Italian Renaissance
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    • May 
    • Artist: Limbourg Brothers
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • chateau at Riom
    • first day in May
    • elaborate spring festival
    • thin elongated figures that are extremely detailed
    • delicate silhouettes
    • linear details
    • brilliant rich colors
    • realism of historical costume
    • domestic setting of upper class
    • light-hearted, chivalrous, and pleasure loving aristocracy
    • February
    • Artist: Limbourg Brothers
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • blue sets mood and unifies all the images in the calendar
    • blue is cold winter
    • brilliant colored clothes
    • details in decoration of fabric
    • high horizon line
    • no front wall of house
    • recession into space
    • landscape dominated image (typical with peasants)
    • in aristocracy images figures take up majority of picture
    • January
    • Artist: Limbourg Brothers
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • fire screen around dukes head serves as a a large halo
    • lavish food and tapestry
    • tapestry alludes to Trojan war - knowledge of past important for political leaders
    • Well of Moses
    • Artist: Sluter
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance, 1395-1406
    • Location: Chartreuse de Champol, Dijon, France
    • Techniques:
    • limestone with traces of paint
    • Sluter was in charge of Phillips the Bold's statuary workshop
    • large sculptural fountain in a well which was the water source for the whole monetary
    • probably had no spouting water - Carthusian belief to silence and prayer - no sound ever
    • statues of Moses, David, and four other prophets - they supported the group of crucifixion figures on top
    • significance
    •    - fountain of life
    •    - blood of Christ flows to pedestal below and flow over old testament sins washing away they're sin and into the well below
    •    - promise of ever lasting life
    • sculptures recall jamb statues but are more realistically rendered
    • heavy under-cut drapery
    • voluminous folds that wrap around the way a baby is wrapped - cloth swattled figures
    • heavy drapery is Sluter's style
    • differentiating textures
    • would've been painted to add life to the figures - promise of everlasting life
    • no physical movement or weight shift
    • connection between life and art
  1. four virtues
    •    - knights symbolize fortitude
    •    - hermits symbolize temperance
    •    - pilgrims symbolize prudence
    •    - judges of church symbolize justice
    • Escorial Depostion
    • Artist: Rogier Van Der Weyden
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance, 1435
    • Techniques:
    • tempera and oil on wood
    • focus on fluid and dynamic compositions that stress human actions and drama to relate people to the suffering of Christ
    • center panel of trypict
    • comissioned by archers guild
    • patrons are recognized by spandrels that look like bows and arrows
    • shallow stage like setting - concentrating the observers attention
    • gold background represents spiritual world
    • Mary mimics the s-shaped curve of Christ's body
    • closure to composition created by Mary Magdalene and St. John the Baptist with their rounded backs
    • red in several places across the piece
    • crisply modeled human figure forms
    • each figure is individualized and has its own mass and space
    • immediate and direct emotional impact
    • extremely realistic
    • play of light and shadow in garments
    • blood on feet
    • Portininari Altarpiece
    • Artist: Hugo Van Der Goes
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance, 1476
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • patrons - Italian ship owner with patron saints (on left) and wife and daughter (on right)
    • realistic landscape
    • symbolic architecture unifies the panels
    • "Adoration of the Shepards" is center panel
    • allusion to suffering more than miracle of Nativity
    • everything alludes to Crucifixion
    • Mary is kneeling on tilted ground
    • flowers in foreground - iris represent knife blades that are stabbing Mary with grief and sorrow and conombine is sorrows of Mary and kind of royalty
    • wheat behind flowers symbolizes Bethlahem and Ucerist
    • 15 angels symbolize joys of Mary
    • figures opposite each other contrast each other to represent homely and divine
    • plebeian faces of shepards, realism in face, wonder, piety and curiosity
    • hearth symbolizes King David
    • reviving Medieval pictorial devices
    • depiction of flight into Egypt
    • Annuncation
    • arrival of magi
    • Merode Altarpiece
    • Artist: Robert Champin
    • Era: 15th Century Nothern Renaissance, 1425-1428
    • Techniques:
    • humanizing presentation of a religious scene because it is for private use
    • ornamental style
    • romantic mood
    • everyday setting
    • religious figures don't have halos
    • man and wife on left are sponsers
    • theory are in an enclosed garden
    • all the flowers represent Mary's purity, strawberry plants and violets, and they present Mary's virtues, one of which is humility
    • Annunciation in center
    • right panel is an upstairs room
    • Joseph as a carpenter
    • mouse trap on window sill - refers to the cross of the lord is that mouse trap of the devil - protects family from devil
    • detailed landscape outside window
    • oil painting allowed more modeling and different intensities of color
    • set in architectural scene for center panel
    • book, extinguished candle, lilies, copper basin, towels, fire screen, and bench all tie to the virgin's purity and her divine missiom
    • copper is purity
    • candle is holy spirit
    • lily is ressurection and cricftixioin
    • play of light and shadow in garmnet
    • voluminous folds
    • star burst on her dress - reference to the exact moment of concept
    • next to fireplace implies that she is pregnant
    • stained glass crests to identify the families who commissioned the piece
    • Arnolfini and His Bride
    • Artist: Van Eyck
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance, 1434
    • Techniques:
    • piece is tiny in perspective
    • depicts not just marriage but giving her legal rights to manage affairs while he is gone
    • purpose is to record and sanctify this marriage
    • painting documents textures and light and shadow
    • her eyes are lowered to him
    • compostional layout
    •    - symmetrical
    •    - man is next to window, closer to worldly affairs
    •    - woman is next to bed, domestic
    •    - but tjhey are still equal
    • pledge of loyalty
    • dog is a symbol of fidelity
    • not wearing shoes - he is standing on holy ground
    • bowl of oranges, symbolize a long and fruitful, marriage, refers back to Roman gods
    • chandelier with one candle represents holy spirit
    • carved into bed post is the saint of child birth
    • whisk broom hanging off bed post - domestic chores of wife
    • open curtains on bed - childbirth
    • she is holding up a very heavy garment to look like pregnant but she is not
    • Van Eyck signs the back wall
    • reflection of mirror can see four figures, husband, wife, priest, and Van Eyck - amazing miniaturistic detail
    • ten medallions around mirror relate to the life of Christ
    • each medallion has a scene from the life of Christ
    • Man in a Red Turban
    • Artist: Van Eyck
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance, 1433
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • thought to be a self portrait
    • objectifying of self in portraits
    • focus on what things look like and a movement towards secularization
    • level gaze of portrait
    • 3/4 pose of head
    • gaze follows viewer
    • weathered skin
    • originally had frame with inscription "as I can" on top and "Jan van Eyck made me" on bottom


    • Garden of Earthly Delights
    • Artist: Bosch
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance, 1505-1510
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • precursor to surrealism
    • themes of marriage, sex, and procreation
    • painted for the palace of Henry III, regent of the Netherlands
    • Exterior
    • - devestated earth
    • - result of interior
    • - figure in upper left corner is god or angel
    • Creation of Eve
    • - Bosch was an Adamist, anti-feminist
    • - Eve is the incarnation of original sin
    • - god or Christ is presenting Eve to Adam
    • - false paradise
    • - mix of real and fantastical animals and plant life
    • Garden of Earthly Delights (center)
    • - presents the things that lead to a life of sin
    • - ravens represent evil, magicians, and nonbelievers
    • - owl in fountain represents witchcraft and sorcery
    • - egg represents sex and alchemy
    • - glass beakers alludes to alchemy
    • - glass is good fortune but is easily broken
    • - rodents throughout the piece symbolize lies
    • - groups of birds are demonic beings
    • - dead fish symbolize lost promises- interracial couples
    • Hell (right)
    • - music theme
    • - devil lures man into sin through music
    • - instruments and  ears
    • - man crucified to harp
    • - mockery of copper pots
    • - quick brush strokes, but a lot of detail
    • A Goldsmith in His Shop
    • Artist: Christus
    • Era: 15th Century Nothern Renaissance, 1449
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • religious and secular
    • importance of marriage
    • St. Eligius was originally a goldsmith
    • bethrothal girdle on table and reaching for engagement ring
    • scales represent last judgement
    • commissioned by goldsmiths guild possibly
    • raw materials show the importance of the guild
    • convex mirror reflects the viewer's space
    • Sacrifice of Isaac
    • Artist: Brunelleschi
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1401-1402
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • gilded bronze relief
    • sturdy and vigorous interpretation
    • emotional agitation
    • Abraham is lunging forward
    • drapery is flying up
    • lunging angel balances figure of Abraham
    • angel is coming out of frame
    • two figures meet at the center where Isaac is
    • sheep is present, on mountainside
    • horizontal split, two planes
    • 2 human figures on bottom don't fit
    • Sacrifice of Isaac
    • Artist: Ghiberti
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1401-1402
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • gilded bronze
    • realistic spatial illusion
    • Abraham is in a Gothic s-shaped curve
    • Isaac recalls Greco-Roman statuary
    • first Classicizing nude since Antiquity
    • turn of head resembles Hellenistic
    • muscular position in a twist
    • Isaac on podium decorated with acanthus scrolls
    • classical references shows influence of Humanism
    • incised details
    • rocky landscape emerges from background
    • diagonal split of scenes
    • landscape is a pictorial devise that creates recession into space
    • angled mule
    • angel has foreshortening to make it seem as if it is coming out of the sky
    • cast in two pieces, lighter design that was less likely to be corroded
    • less overtly emotional
    • more unified
    • more realistic spatial illusion
    • he won and then makes 28 panels for the north door of the Florence Cathedral
    • Feast of Herod
    • Artist: Donatello
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1425
    • Location: Baptismal Font, Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • Soleme is a servant who is dancing after presenting the head of John the Baptist to the king
    • everyone shrinks back when head is presented
    • two groups of people are split but balanced
    • recession into space through two arched courtyards with people
    • floor lines create perspective
    • picture divided in half
    • perspective meets at center of piece
    • different levels of relief - foreground is highest relief while background is more shallow
    • Gates of Paradise
    • Artist: Ghiberti
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1425-1452
    • Location: East Doors of Baptistery of Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • gilded bronze relief
    • relief creates play of light and shadow
    • Old and New Testament scenes
    • ten square panels
    • Isaac and His Sons
    • Artist: Ghiberti
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1425-1452
    • Location: Gates of Paradise, East Doors of Baptistery of Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • gilded bronze relief
    • one point perspective creates the illusion of space, pictorial perspective
    • figures are modeled to give them volume and mass
    • foregroumd is high relief and background is low relief
    • architectural colonaded helps create recession into space
    • females are graceful with contraposta
    • deeply undercut folds
    • figures in parallel plane of architecture - they aren't actually in arches
    • classical poses and motifs
    • several episodes in one scene, from Medieval tradition
    • scene from the Book of Genesis
    • Quatrro Santi Coronati
    • Artist: Nanni di Banco
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1408-1414
    • Location: Florence
    • Techniques:
    • four crowned saints in alcove
    • marble sculptures that are approx life size
    • four martyred saints that represent that guilds of sculptors architects and masona
    • Classical entire with undercut folds
    • different textures make present them as different fabrics
    • contraposta pose
    • feet of two figures enter viewers space
    • semicircle of figures
    • separated from architecture
    • relate to each other with posture, gestures, and drapery
    • faces show individuality
    • shrunken engaged columns
    • emotional intensity of two inner saints
    • revert backs to portrayals of Roman emperors, bearded figures
    • St. Mark
    • Artist: Donatello
    • Era: 15th Century Italian Renaissance, 1411-1413
    • Location: Florence
    • Techniques:
    • marble
    • set inside a niche
    • fundamental step towards motion by over emphasizing contraposta
    • not as upright
    • ponderation - over emphasis of weight shift
    • anticipation of motion
    • drapery accentuates motion
    • movement in arms, legs, shoulders, and hips
    • independent of architectural setting
    • deeply undercut folds create a deep play of light and shadow
    • irregular folds
    • sense for weight of fabric
    • bearded figure represents age and wisdom, and refers to Roman
    • not sculpture in the round

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