East Asian Civ II

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East Asian Civ II
2012-10-14 17:18:26
japan tokugawa shogunate

Japan (1600-1890)
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  1. Hayashi Razan
    • who? Neo-Confucian Scholar
    • What? -credited for popularizing confucianisn for Tokugawa -writes official history of Tokugawa Shogunate
    • When? born 1583-1657
    • Where? Japan
    • Why? obedience, virtue and morality, proper behavior, conservative
  2. Ukiyo
    • What? - floating world (world of pleasures) -buddhist concept of life (happy and painful) -pleasures (novels, plays, kabuki theater)
    • When? Gunroku Era
    • Where? Japan
    • Why? Flourishing arts
  3. Kabuki
    • What? -type of theater -performed by men -overcome villians, supernatural powers, makeup, sets
    • When? Gunroku Era
    • Where? Japan
    • Why? Flourishing arts, entertainment
  4. Haiku
    • What? -type of poetry -usually 3 lines
    • When? Gunroku Era
    • Where? Japan (Edo)
    • Who? any literate person
    • Why? beautiful art
  5. Eta, Chonin, Ronin
    • Eta-outcasts
    • Chonin- townspeople
    • Ronin- masterless samurai
  6. Merchant class
    • Who? merchants
    • What? - moving class structure -give loans with large interest -bankrupting samurai -keep, buy, sell products
    • When? Gunroku Era
    • Where? Japan (Edo)
    • Why? they can
  7. Dutch Learning
    • Who? japanese
    • What? -new school of thought -western technology, math, and languages
    • When? 18th century
    • Where? west confined in nagasaki
    • Why? japan too closed off to the world and need more
  8. "Nativism"
    • who? Japanese people
    • What? -looking into japanese past -creation story, emperor and imperial family, religion (shinto) -scholors think of themselves and  japan as exceptional place
    • when? Gunroku era
    • Where? Japan
    • Why? to grow japan
  9. Tokugawa Confucianism 
  10. Genroku Era
    • Who? Japanese in Edo
    • What? -arts flourishing -new forms of arts (poetry, books, silk paintings) -inspiration from surroundings
    • When? late 17th century/early 18th century
  11. Shimabara Rebellion
    • Who? Christians
    • What? -fight reforms of shogunate -samurai crusify men along the highway -church goes underground (small)
    • When? 1637-1638
    • Where? Southern tip of Japan
    • Why? fear of takeover from west/christians
  12. Toyotomi Hideyoshi
    • Who? Unifier
    • what? -unifies groups (more advanced) -better equipt (muskets) -pulls islands together and invades Korea (cuts off noses)
    • When? dies 1598
    • Where? Japan --> invade Korea
    • Why?unify japan
  13. Tokugawa Ieyasu
    • Who? founder of the shogunate
    • what? -promises hideyoshi to protect son -takes the power -preserves domestic peace
    • when? 1542-1616
    • where? japan
  14. Tokugawa Shogunate
    • who? shogunate of japan
    • What? -hold together military -preserve domestic peace -secular power -own 1/4 of land -control major port cities -own all major mines -tax own land, pay for armies
    • when? 1600-1868
    • where? japan
    • why? keep order and peace
  15. Edo
    • who? shogunate (modern day tokyo)
    • what? -controls daimyo
    • when? during tokugawa shogunate
    • where? japan
    • why? keep order
  16. Senior Counselors
    • Who? trusted men
    • what? -from same family as shogunate -respond to the govt
    • when? during tokugawa shogunate
    • where? -live in the capital (edo)
    • why? extra help
  17. samurai
    • who? warriors
    • what? -military power -controled in edo by daimyo
    • when? japan during tokugawa shogunate
    • where? all over japan (3 sectors)
    • why? protection for daimyo and country
  18. Shogun
    • who? bakufu
    • what? issue taxes -resolve conflicts -make laws
    • when? during tokugawa shogunate
    • where? japan
  19. Daimyo
    • who? Han- chief lords, educated, wealthy, rule over estates
    • what? -run estates -respond to shogun -keep taxes -manage own personal affairs -police own borders -provide milt aid, money, man power, supplies -oversee religious institutions -issue own law codes -control people from leaving -biinial rotation -limit # of guns and warriors
    • why? 1. legitamizes their right to exist 2. stabalize all the borders 3. get help during natural disasters
  20. 1854-58
    • what? -japans unequal treaty years with western powers 
    • treaty of peace and amnity 1open to outside world (2 ports open) 2.if americans get shipwrecked, japs must help 3.create american embassy close to capital -damages authority and power of japan -give into western demands
    • when? 1854
    • where? Japan (with america)
    • why? west wants power
    • how? force
  21. Meiji reforms
    • Japan established 1 highly centralized beurocratic state
    • consitiution with elected parlament (Diet)
    • create modern transportation and communication
    • well educated classless society
    • establish an industrial center
    • powerful army and navy
    • gain control of foreign trade and legal system
  22. Meiji Emperor
    • who? 14 year old boy
    • what? -symbolic -move emperor from Kyoto to Edo -rename Edo to Tokyo -choshu and satsuma influence decisions
    • when? 1868
    • why? emperor wanted real power
  23. Satsuma Rebellion
    • who? samurai
    • what? -last stand -samurai lose -saigo dies on battle field--honored as man of nobility 
    • when? 1877
    • where? edo, japan
    • why? one last stand of samurai
    • how? battle
  24. Saigo Takamori
    • who? launched satsuma rebellion
    • what? last stand of samurai (take up arms with govt)
    • when? 1827-1877
    • where? edo japan
    • why? last stand 
    • how? battle
  25. Janurary 3rd, 1868
    • what? -fall of tokugawa shogunate -new govt forms with focus on emperor
    • when? 1868
    • where? japan
    • why? new power
    • how? superior govt, more equipt
  26. Fukuzawa Yukichi
    • who? explores western ideas
    • what? -brings back books, ideas, social structures from west -part of dutch learning then english -open to ideas of the west
    • when? 1870s
    • where? japan-->explored western countries
    • why? new ideas for better way of life
  27. Sonno Joi
    • way of mito school
    • revere the emperor and expell the barbarian
  28. Comodore Matthew Perry
    • who? american explorer
    • what? -comes with 3 ships and gives ultimatum to japan -scare shogun because they are unequipt to control over west -no longer can confine westeners
    • when? 1853
    • where? edo bay, japan
    • why? manifest destiny
  29. Mito School
    • who? oppositional nativists
    • what? -sonno joi -focus on the centrality of the emperor
    • when? late 1850s
    • where? japan
    • why? resist the govt
  30. Choshu
    • who? alliance with satsuma
    • what? -outer diamyo (conservative and antiwestern) -refused to awknowledge westeners and treaty -go to war with shogunate -secret alliance with satsuma
    • when? 1850s
    • where? Southwest Honshu
    • why? resist government
  31. Satsuma
    • who? outside Daimyo
    • what? -alliance with choshu about shogunate -conservative (antiwestern) -refused to follow unequal treaty -defeated by west in late 1850s
    • when? late 1850s
    • where? Kyushu
    • why? resist the government
  32. Meiji Constitution
    • who? emperor to subjects
    • what? -creates constitutional monarchy -promises parlamentary legislature -only top 1% of population can vote -only japanese emperor can change document
    • when? 1889
    • where? japan government
    • how? gift to subjects
  33. Western Influences
    • who? commodore matthew perry and fukusawa yukichi
    • what? -explore and bring western ideas -government, education, social structure
    • when? beginning in 1853
    • where? japan
    • why? new ideas, better society/country
    • how? exploration/observation
  34. Charter Oath of 1868
    • who? urged by senior counselors, signed by young emperor
    • what? -promise to create new society and make break with past -abolish classes -modernize and industrialize -full scale westernize
    • when? 1868
    • where? japan
    • why? more effective society
  35. zaibatsu
    • who? rich merchants and rich samurai (the ones who still have a fortune)
    • what? -own all factors of production -govt sell factories cheaply to private entraprenurs 
    • when? 1880s
    • where? japan
    • why? industralize and make money
    • how? cash (taxes) from farmers to build factories
  36. Policy of national isolation
    • who? Japan leaders over public
    • what? -confine westerners to Nagasaki -ideologial control 1shogun get support of tokugawa empire 2tokugawa shogun make a culture of divinity 3state support of confucianism
    • when? late 1630s-->early 1640s and on
    • where? whole country of japan
    • why? complete control and hold people together
  37. Kyoto
    • who? emperor
    • what? -sacred power -balance between heaven and earth -regulated by tokugawa shogunate
    • when? during tokugawa shogunate
    • why? keep religious power separate
  38. Samurai
    • who? warriors
    • what? -military power -controlled in edo or by daimyo
    • when? japan during tokugawa shogunate
    • where? all over japan
    • why? protection
  39. Meiji Restoration
    • who? Meiji emperor
    • what? -reform of country (berucratic government, constitution, transport and communicantion system, classless educated society, industrial sector, powerful arms/navy
    • when? 1868-1912
    • where? japan
    • why? stabilization
    • how? power over subjects
  40. Bakufu Government
    • who? tent government
    • what? incharge of: warfare, policing, administration
    • when? 1192-1868
    • where? japan (edo)
    • why? field commander moved a lot 
  41. Pax Tokugawa
    Time of peace and flourishment during Tokugawa shogunate
  42. Tokugawa Confucianism
    • who? Hayashi Razan
    • what? 1fundamental rationalism- laws of nature and society 2essential humanism- relationships and social order 3historicism- japanese history 4ethnocentrism- loyality to japan
    • when? tokugawa shogunate
    • where? japan
    • why? more effective society
    • how? belief system forced