codons, start codon, A/P/E sites of ribsome, stop codon
Modification occurs in other parts of the cell
Animals and plants are what
Describe how “simple” animals move nutrients and gases
Use diffusion or body cavities to move nutrients and gases
Describe how “complex” animals utilize transportation systems
heart for fluids
lungs for gases
Describe the system for insects and vertebrates use for moving gases
Insects use tracheal system: Use pores to breathe in air
Vertebrates use lungs: the uses of diaphram to breathe in and out
Air moves from ___ to ___ pressure, controlled by diaphragm
Air moves from high to low pressure, controlled by diaphragm
To aid solubility, hemoglobin moves __ and ___
To aid solubility, hemoglobin moves O2 and CO2
Hearts pump fluid from high to low pressure through tubes called arteries, capillaries and veins. Decribe each of the tubes by size, flow, and function.
Arteries: Thickest, away from heart and to Capillaries, maintain blood pressure
Capillaries: Smallest, to the veins, serve as an exchange mechanism
Vein: Largest, return to the heart, serves as resevoir and the ability to suck up blood
Mollusks and insects have _______, annelids and vertebrates have ____________
Mollusks and insects have hemocoel, annelids and vertebrates have closed circulation
Plants are composed of ____, _____ and ____ (Name in order and by how?)
Plants are composed of roots, shoots and leaves
Move by highest to lowest water potenetial (Transpiration)
Vascular tissue in plants is ____ and _____, serve different functions (Name, difference, and list the function)
Vascular tissue in plants is xylem and phloem
Xylem is dead and phloem is alive
Xylem transport H2O and Phloem transport metabolites (e.g. sap)
Describe the flow of water in plants
By water potential: Root hairs to Casparian strip to xylem to leaves, exits stomata
Bulk transport utilizes active transport
Describe cell wall and where it is found
Cell wall is non living
Cell wall found in plants, bacteria, fungi
Structure and function of plasma membrane
To protect the cell from the outside and keep the cell together
Structure and function of ribosome
Use mRNA to make protein
Structure and function of endoplasmic reticulum
Rough ER has ribsome and serves in protein production
Smooth ER does no have ribsome and serves as lipid production
Structure and function of Golgi apparatus
Protein modification, directing membrane bound, and exporting protein
Structure and function of lysosome
Has hydrolytic enzymes for digestion/ cell suicides (Apoptosis)
Structure and function of mitochondria
Convert lipids, sugars, protein, and oxygen to energy
Structure and function of chloroplast
Produce ATP and other organic compounds
The physical form of cells and organisms is often influenced by special structural polymers.Choose one polymer from each of the following three pairs of polymers
Pair 1: tubulin . . myosin
Pair 2: cellulose . . chitin
Pair 3: messenger RNA . . transfer RNA
For each of the three polymers you have chosen, describe its
b. role in a cell or organism.
Proteins — large complex molecules — are building blocks of all living organisms. Discussthe following in relation to proteins.
a. the chemical composition and levels of structure of proteins
b. the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis
c. the roles of proteins in membrane structure and transport of molecules across the membrane
The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function.
a. Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type,describe the role in determining protein structure.
b. Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following.
regulation of enzyme activity
cell signaling (ignorne never taught)
c. Abnormal hemoglobin is the identifying characteristic of sickle cell anemia. Explain thegenetic basis of abnormal hemoglobin. Explain why the sickle cell allele is selected for incertain areas of the world.
A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in the organization of their geneticmaterial
a. Discuss the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
b. Contrast the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
• replication of DNA
• gene regulation
• cell division
A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presence of membraneboundorganelles in eukaryotes.
a. Describe the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus.
b. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound components incommon. Describe the function of TWO of the following and discuss how each differs inprokaryotes and eukaryotes.
c. Explain the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cell and discuss an exampleof evidence supporting this theory.