Exam 2 AP Bio

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Exam 2 AP Bio
2012-11-06 01:31:28
Mr Brothwell Westminster High School

Exam 2 Objectives
Show Answers:

  1. List the basic molecular components of cells
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acid
  2. Descibe the element composition of Fats
    • Carbon, Hydogen, and some other elements
    • CH
  3. Descibe the element composition of Carbohydrates
    • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
    • CHO
  4. Descibe the element composition of Proteins
    • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, (Sulfur)
    • CHON
  5. Describe the result of dehydration synthesis
    Builts up polymers by taking away OH and H making H2O.
  6. Describe the result of hydrolysis reactions
    Breaking polymers down by adding H2O to the ends of the monopolymer
  7. Basic structures of monomers and polymers for carbohydrates
    • Monomer, monosaccharides: Multiples of CH2O
    • Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides
    • Oligosaccharides: a few monosaccharides
    • Polysaccharides: many monosaccharides
  8. Basic structures of lipids
    • Monomer: Fatty Acid, a long carbon skeleton with hydrogen
    • Fats: Triacylglycerol = 3 Fatty acid + Glycerol
    •          Phospholipids = 2 Fatty acid + Glycerol + (Phosphate+Choline)
    •          Steroid = 4 fused rings of carbon skeleton
  9. Basic structures of monomers and polymers for proteins
    • Monomer, peptides: backbone + type of amino acid
    • Polynomer, polypeptides: many amino acids that makes a chain
  10. Evidence that life started in salt water is found in our cells
    • Uyer-Miller experiment of precursor.
    • The biotic materials founded were salt water, and carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid
  11. Describe the structure of the cell membrane in terms of the fluid mosaic model
    • Note that sugar attach to lipids and protein, not directly to the bilayer
  12. Structure and function of the phospholipid bilayer
    • Function: To keep water out and water in
  13. Importance of the surface area to volume ratio
    • The smaller the cells, the higher the SA/V
    • More function from being small
    • Explains why cells are small
  14. Calculate SA/V values
    Easy: find the value of SA and V and divide
  15. Biological rule of increased surface area = ???
    Increased function
  16. Relative sizes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • Prokaryotes is around 1-5 ìm and eukaryotes is around 10-20 ìm
    • It is just prokaryotes are smaller than eukaryotes
  17. Describe how is life divided
    • Into three categories: 
    • 1. Archaea
    • 2. Bacteria
    • 3. Eukaryota
  18. Descriptions of the three domains and why they are prokaryotic or eukaryotic (often called protist)
    • Archaea and Bacteria are prokaryotic because they lack compartments
    • Eukaryotic is itself (duh) because they have compartments
    • They both have different way of storing genetic info
  19. Structures in common within the three domains and how they relate to the last common ancestor(s)
    Both have DNA, cytoplasm, and cell membrane
  20. Describe the components and application of the kinetic molecular theory
    Everything is moving, but at random rates
  21. Define diffusion
    the movement of [something] of high concentration to low concentration
  22. Explain the factors affecting KMT: size, temperature, solubility, charge, distance, concentration
    • Size: smaller = faster 
    • Temperature: hotter = faster, colder = slower
    • Solubility
    • Charge
    • Distance
    • Concentration
  23. Apply Fick’s principle and Graham’s law
    • Fick: Rate is proportional to area x (pressure or  concertation/distance)
    • Graham: Rate of movement is inversely proportional to its mass
  24. Calculate size of molecules for comparison purposes
    • H2O = 18 mole/gram vs. C6H12O6 = 180 mole/gram
    • Sugar is 10 time bigger than water
  25. Structure of water
    • Bended molecule
    • Shape makes polarized state = partial charges
    • O has partial negative and H has partial positive
  26. Emergent properties of water: adhesion/cohesion, specific heat capacity, surface tension, density as a solid
    • adhesion/cohesion: ad. = Water + Water, co. = water + something else
    • specific heat capacity: can store a specific for a long time
    • surface tension: water can be suface. e.g: belly-flops hit you, but it is liquid
    • density decease as a solid. e.g.: Ice floating
  27. Diagram and explain hydrogen bonding
    • Can use partial charges of water to bond w/ their opposite charge
  28. Define osmosis
    Movement/diffusion of water into/out of a cell
  29. Give reasons for water’s ability to pass through the cell
    membrane with size and aquaporin proteins
    • Size - small so by graham’s law, small = fast
    • Aquaporin proteins (channel protein)
  30. Define the terms hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic
    • Hypertonic: Decrease in mass of a cell by water moving out (Hint: Think of Pokemon when a pokemon use Hyper Beam and lower it mass so it has to recharge)
    • Hypotonic: Increase in mass of a cell by water moving in
    • Isotonic: No change in mass of a cell by water moving in and out equally
  31. Define water potential
     - the physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow (osmosis), governed by solute concentration and applied pressure
  32. Explain components of water potential equation
    •  = sp
    • s = solutibilty = -iCRT (C =concentration in mol/L, R = Ideal gas constant, T = temperature in Kelvin)
    • = ressure (needs cell wall to solve for )
  33. Graphically determine concentrations for water potential
    • y-axis: water potential value
    • x-axis: pressure or solubility
  34. Define passive diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport
    • Passive = no energy required for movement
    • Facilitated = with the help of (with protein gate/channels)
    • Active = requires energy for movement (ATP or ADP)
  35. Explain protein gates and protein channels
    • Gate: open or close caused by stimulus
    • Channels: always open
    • Example of gate protein: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GTHWig1vOnY
  36. Phagocytosis and pinocytosis for endocytosis
    • Phagocytosis is solid objects bring into a cell
    • Pinocytosis is non-solid objects bring into a cell
  37. Exocytosis process related to gene expression
    Can deliver proteins from Golgi vesicles to the outside of the cell
  38. Cytoskeleton components and their functions
    • Microtubules: Intercellular movement
    • Microfilament: Changing shape
    • Intermediate: Maintaining shape
  39. Multicellular organisms have different cells by how?
    By cellular differentation
  40. Explain the process of cells becoming different through differential gene expression
    • First an egg and sperm makes a fertizated egg (zygote)
    • Zygote split to 2 to 4 to 8 to 16 to 32 ...
    • At 16/32, we get an inside and an outside
    • Result is different environment = different condition = differtial gene expression = different types of cells
  41. DNA is the hereditary material, as shown with experiments by Griffith, Avery, MacLeoid, and McCarty
    • Griffith, Mcleod, McCarthy + Avery (later)
    • Experiment with living non-deadly cell + non-living deadly cell= poison. Result was a transformation of cell that acquires a new trait
    • Avery prove it was the Nucleus that was the soucre of transformation. Nucleus has DNA
  42. DNA is the hereditary material, as shown with experiments by  Hershey and Chase
    Experiment with sulfur (Protein) and phosphorus (DNA) and see which cell holds on to it after be spun (centrifuge)
  43. The structure of DNA, as shown with experiments by Watson, Crick, Franklin, and Wilkins
    • Franklin took very clear picture of DNA through x-ray
    • Wilkins did the same as Franklin but not as clear
    • Watson/Crick made the model of DNA from Franklin and Wilkins.
  44. Describe the structure and polarity of nucleic acids which are based upon nucleotides
  45. Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in DNA structure
    • Prokaryotes are circular shaped
    • Eukaryotes are two parallel line shaped
  46. Know the terms base pairing, double helix, anti-parallel
    • Pairing: Cytosine + Guanine, Uracil/Thymine + Adenine
    • Double helix: A strand that wraps around another strand. e.g.: fingers crossed
    • Anti-parallel: Two parallel strands with opposite ends
  47. Describe functions of DNA and RNA
    • DNA: Info storage (more stable that RNA)
    • RNA: Info, structural, energy, enzyme
  48. Replication origins and differences between prokaryotes
    and eukaryotes
    • Replication origin: a place of the DNA where it spit and replicates new DNA
    • Prokaryotes has a circular-shaped chromosome and only one place of replication origin
    • Eukaryotes has a parallel shaped chromosomes and many replication origin
  49. Label the parts of the replication fork
  50. Differentiate between lagging and leading strands
    • Leading strand builds its new DNA strand continuously
    • Lagging strand builds its new DNA strand, stops, add a bridge to connect and repeat. (Build backward, Slower process)
  51. BTW Peter Nguyen made these answers and the one before that for Exam 1
    Richeal found this and did not cite it
  52. Explain semi-conservative replication
    • Where a DNA consist of an old strand of DNA and a new strand of DNA when it was being replicated.
  53. State the source of mutation from DNA Pol
    When DNA Pol adds nucleotides in the process of replication, there is room for errors by adding the wrong nucleotides which results in mutation
  54. Explain and give examples for retrovirus replication
    • Retroviruses use RNA, not DNA, to replicate
    • Example: ???
  55. Central dogma (processes): DNA to RNA to protein
    • Transcription (DNA -> mRNA): in nucleus, RNA polymerase copies coding strand & produces mRNA
    • Translation (mRNA -> protein): in cytoplasm, codons on mRNA read by ribosome, matched to anticodons of tRNA, tRNA carries amino acids to mRNA, & ribosome assembles polypeptide chain
  56. Describe the possible RNAs
    • mRNA: messenger RNA
    • rRNA:
    • tRNA: transfer RNA
    • RNAi (siRNA) : RNA inference (small interfernce RNA)
  57. Transcription starts with a ________, RNA polymerase runs until reaches ________ sequence
    Transcription starts with a promoter, RNA polymerase runs until reaches terminator sequence
  58. Modifications occur with ________, differences in _______
    Modifications occur with eukaryotes, differences in locations
  59. Translation process: codons, start codon, A/P/E sites of ribsome, stop codon
    • codons, start codon, A/P/E sites of ribsome, stop codon
  60. Modification occurs in other parts of the cell
  61. Animals and plants are what
  62. Describe how “simple” animals move nutrients and gases
    Use diffusion or body cavities to move nutrients and gases
  63. Describe how “complex” animals utilize transportation systems
    • heart for fluids
    • lungs for gases
  64. Describe the system for insects and vertebrates use for moving gases
    • Insects use tracheal system: Use pores to breathe in air
    • Vertebrates use lungs: the uses of diaphram to breathe in and out
  65. Air moves from ___ to ___ pressure, controlled by diaphragm
    Air moves from high to low pressure, controlled by diaphragm
  66. To aid solubility, hemoglobin moves __ and ___
    To aid solubility, hemoglobin moves O2 and CO2
  67. Hearts pump fluid from high to low pressure through tubes called arteries, capillaries and veins. Decribe each of the tubes by size, flow, and function.
    • Arteries: Thickest, away from heart and to Capillaries, maintain blood pressure
    • Capillaries: Smallest, to the veins, serve as an exchange mechanism
    • Vein: Largest, return to the heart, serves as resevoir and the ability to suck up blood
  68. Mollusks and insects have _______, annelids and vertebrates have ____________
    Mollusks and insects have hemocoel, annelids and vertebrates have closed circulation
  69. Plants are composed of ____, _____ and ____ (Name in order and by how?)
    • Plants are composed of roots, shoots and leaves 
    • Move by highest to lowest water potenetial (Transpiration)
  70. Vascular tissue in plants is ____ and _____, serve different functions (Name, difference, and list the function)
    • Vascular tissue in plants is xylem and phloem 
    • Xylem is dead and phloem is alive
    • Xylem transport H2O and Phloem transport metabolites (e.g. sap)
  71. Describe the flow of water in plants
    By water potential: Root hairs to Casparian strip to xylem to leaves, exits stomata
  72. Describe phloem
    Bulk transport utilizes active transport
  73. Describe cell wall and where it is found
    • Cell wall is non living
    • Cell wall found in plants, bacteria, fungi
  74. Structure and function of plasma membrane
    • Phophoslipid bilayer
    • To protect the cell from the outside and keep the cell together
  75. Structure and function of ribosome
    • Use mRNA to make protein
  76. Structure and function of endoplasmic reticulum
    • Rough ER has ribsome and serves in protein production
    • Smooth ER does no have ribsome and serves as lipid production
  77. Structure and function of Golgi apparatus
    • Protein modification, directing membrane bound, and exporting protein
  78. Structure and function of lysosome
    • Has hydrolytic enzymes for digestion/ cell suicides (Apoptosis)
  79. Structure and function of mitochondria
    • Convert lipids, sugars, protein, and oxygen to energy
  80. Structure and function of chloroplast
    • Produce ATP and other organic compounds
  81. 2002B:3
    The physical form of cells and organisms is often influenced by special structural polymers.Choose one polymer from each of the following three pairs of polymers 
    Pair 1: tubulin . . myosin 
    Pair 2: cellulose . . chitin 
    Pair 3: messenger RNA . . transfer RNA
    For each of the three polymers you have chosen, describe its
    a. structure 
    b. role in a cell or organism.
    • http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/b_sg_biology_02_11381.pdf 
    • Pg. 6
  82. 2001:4
    Proteins — large complex molecules — are building blocks of all living organisms. Discussthe following in relation to proteins.
    a. the chemical composition and levels of structure of proteins
    b. the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis
    c. the roles of proteins in membrane structure and transport of molecules across the membrane
    • http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/sg_biology_01_6792.pdf  
    • Pg. 7-9
  83. 2008:1
    The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function.
    a. Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type,describe the role in determining protein structure.
    b. Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following.
    muscle contraction
    regulation of enzyme activity
    cell signaling (ignorne never taught)
    c. Abnormal hemoglobin is the identifying characteristic of sickle cell anemia. Explain thegenetic basis of abnormal hemoglobin. Explain why the sickle cell allele is selected for incertain areas of the world.
    • http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap08_biology_sgs.pdf 
    • Pg. 2-3
  84. 2003B:1
    A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in the organization of their geneticmaterial
    a. Discuss the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
    b. Contrast the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
    • replication of DNA
    • transcription
    • gene regulation
    • cell division
    • http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/repository/ap03_sg_biology_b_26427.pdf 
    • Pg. 2
  85. 2006:1
    A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presence of membraneboundorganelles in eukaryotes.
    a. Describe the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus.
    b. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound components incommon. Describe the function of TWO of the following and discuss how each differs inprokaryotes and eukaryotes.
     DNA
     cell wall
     ribosomes
    c. Explain the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cell and discuss an exampleof evidence supporting this theory.
    • http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/_ap06_biology_sg.pdf 
    • Pg. 2-3