evolutionary biology

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evolutionary biology
2012-10-08 00:45:37
evolutionary biology

evolutionary biology
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  1. four reasons of thought before 1800
    • comparative anatomy
    • natural theology
    • ecoogy of human populations
    • classification
  2. fossils - year, who discovered, and what
    1666, Steno, Shark teeth
  3. who identified the order of nature
  4. what was the order of nature
    • hierarchies of beings rather than chain:
    • god
    • angels
    • demons
    • man
    • woman
    • animals
    • plants
    • minerals
    • nonbeing
  5. essentialism definition
    each species has an immutable fundamental form and variation is accidental variation
  6. inheritance of acquired characters definition
    alterations of form during an individual's lifetime are transmitted to offspring
  7. gradualism definition
    differences between species are smooth extensions of variation within species
  8. 5 part theory (mayr)
    • descent with modification
    • common ancestry
    • gradualism
    • populational change
    • natural selection
  9. populational change
    evolution occurs by changes in proportions of individuals with different inherited traits
  10. ______ do not evolve
  11. natural selection definition
    • a mechanism by which distinct forms can be derived from a common ancestor in combination with geography
    • individuals with different trait values have different probabilities of survival and reproduction
  12. evolution is not driven by _____ or _____
    desire or progress
  13. neo-lamarckism
    • use and disuse are the primary drivers of evolution
    • individual organisms change in response to needs
    • better at explaining loss or hypertrophy of existing structures than the origin of novelty
    • no evidence that environmental conditions can induce specific, advantageous hereditary changes
  14. orthogenesis
    species evolve in a predetermined direction
  15. mutationism
    mutation might cause instantaneous origin of new species, novel traits
  16. the modern evolutionary synthesis 
    • reconciliation of darwin-wallace theory with the facts of
    • genetics
    • systematics
    • biogeography
    • paleontology
  17. _____ and _____ together cause adaptive evolution
    mutation and selection
  18. ____ and ____ bridge microevolution and macroevolution
    speciation and extinction
  19. fitness definition
    ability to survive and/or reproduce
  20. natural selection is _____ in _____
    variation in fitness
  21. way natural sel can cause evol
    if the ability to survive and reproduce is inherited
  22. natural selection is not
    • literal selection
    • purposeful
    • forward-looking
    • the only cause of evol.
    • opposed to cooperation or altruism
  23. antagonistic pleiotropy
    same allele coding for beneficial effects in one context causes deletrious effects in another
  24. trade-offs definition
    energy and materials are finite: investment in x leaves fewer resources for y
  25. gene flow definition
    immigration and interbreeding between populatons experiences conflicting demands can limit the response to selection
  26. mosaic evolution
    each species has both ancestral and derived character states
  27. adaptive radiation
    evolutionary divergence of descendants of a single ancestor into a variety of adaptive forms over a relatively short interval of time
  28. who simulated the condition of early earth
  29. biological species concept
    species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
  30. phylogenetic species concept
    to be units of a phylogeny, species must be groups of organisms that are diagnosible from other such units and share a pattern of ancestry and descent
  31. genealogical species concept
    species are the most exclusive groups of organisms that are all descended from a common ancestral organism
  32. allopatric speciation
    when species become geographically separated from one another
  33. parapatric speciation
    separated but able to interact
  34. sympatric speciation
    when species are in the same geographical location but do not interact