Bio-101-Chap-4, Lecture

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micsflashcards
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176179
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Bio-101-Chap-4, Lecture
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2012-10-09 21:04:22
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Energy
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Chapter_4 Energy
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  1. What has to be broken in order to release energy?
    Bonds between atoms of molecules have to be broken in order to release energy.
  2. All life depends on capturing energy from the ____ and converting it into a form that organisms can use.
    All life depends on capturing energy from the sun and converting it into a form that organisms use.
  3. What are the two steps of capturing energy from the sun and converting it into a form that organisms can use?
    • The two steps of capturing energy from the sun and converting it into a form organisms can use are 
    • (1) Photosynthesis
    • (2) Cellular respiration
  4. Define energy?
    What is the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy?
    • Energy is the capacity to do work. And work is anything that involves moving matter against an opposing force. 
    • Kinetic energy is the energy of moving objects.
    • Potential energy is stored energy that has the capacity to do work.
  5. State the 1st Law of Thermodynamics.

    State the 2nd law of Thermodynamics.
    • 1st Law of Thermodynamics- Energy can never be created or destroyed.
    • 2nd Law of Thermodynamics- Every conversion of energy is not perfectly efficient and invariably includes the transformation of some energy into heat, which is almost completely useless to an organism.
  6. How is ATP (adenosine triphosphate) like a free-floating rechargeable battery?
    A free-floating ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is like a rechargeable battery because kinetic energy can attach a phosphate to ADP (charging it up) to make ATP. Then the energy of this battery can be use by breaking down ATP into ADP and phosphate.
  7. From where does most of the 68 grams of new tree come?
    Most of the 68 grams of increase in plant weight comes from the Carbon Dioxide () of the air.
  8. Name three kinds of organisms that have evolved the ability to capture light energy, and convert it to organic matter.
    • (1) Plants
    • (2) Some bacteria (cyanobacteria)
    • (3) Many unicellular organisms (algae)
    • All have evolved to capture light.
  9. What are the (3) basic inputs for photosynthesis?
    • (1) Light Energy
    • (2) carbon dioxide-
    • (3) Water-
  10. In the "photo" segment of photosynthesis, what is captured and is temporailiy stored in energy-molecules? Also, during this segment, what happens to water molecules?
    In the "photo" segment of photosynthesis light energy is captured and is temporarily stored in energy-storage molecules. Also, during this segment a water molecule is split and free oxygen () is produced.
  11. In the "synthesis" segment of phoyosynthesis, what is sythesized or manufactured?
    In the "synthesis" segment of photosynthesis the energy of the energy-storage molecules is used to build sugar molecules from carbon dioxide in the air.
  12. What is the name of the light-harvesting structures of plant cells. What color are they?
    Chloroplasts, that are green, is the name of the light-harvesting organelles of plants cells.
  13. Energy packets of light are called...
    Energy packets of light are called photons
  14. Which photon wavelengths of light, short or long, have more energy?
    It's the short photon wavelengths of light that have more energy.
  15. In order for humans to see color the light has to be absorbed. In order for plants to use light energy to make sugar in photosynthesis, they also have to ______ it.
    In order for humans to see color the light has to be absorbed. In order for plants to use light energy to make sugar in photosynthesis, they also have to absorb it.
  16. What is the name of the green pigment in chloroplast that absorbs light?
    The name of the green pigment in chloroplasts that absorbs light is chlorophyll.
  17. The absorption of light by the pigment chlorophyll excites its electrons and they go to a higher energy state. The energy of these excited electrons is then ______ along.
    The absorption of light by the pigment chlorophyll excites its electrons and they go to a higher energy state. The energy of these excited electrons is then passed along.
  18. In the "photo" segment of photosynthesis, electrons are passed from one molecule to another, with energy released at each transfer, some of which is used to build the energy storage molecules of ______ and ______.
    In the "photo" segment of photosynthesis, electrons are passed from one molecule to another, with energy released at each transfer, some of which is used to build the energy storage molecules of NADPH and ATP.
  19. The "synthesis" segment of photosynthesis (the Calvin Cycle), uses the energy stored ATP and NADPH to make...
    The "synthesis" segment of photosynthesis (the Calvin Cycle), uses the energy stored ATP and NADPH to make sugar.
  20. All living organisms extract energy from the chemical bonds of molecules (which can be considered "food") through a process called ________.
    All living organisms extract energy from the chemical bonds of molecules (which can be considered "food") through a process called cellular respiration.
  21. Ultimately, when a food molecule has been completely processed by cellular respiration process, what is created?
    Ultimately, when a food molecule has been completely processed by cellular respiration process, ATP is created.
  22. How can you feed and protect cut flowers in a vase?
    You can both feed and protect cut flowers in a vase by adding a little bit of sugar and a few drops of an antibacterial chemical such as chlorine bleach.
  23. How old is the Earth?
    The earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old.
  24. How old are the oldest rock, and where are they found?
    The oldest rocks are 3.8 billion years old, and they are found in Greenland.
  25. How old are the oldest fossils of bacteria?
    The oldest fossils of bacteria are 3.4 billion years old.
  26. Do most scientists believe organism/bacteria originated extraterrestrially somewhere else in the universe?
    No, most scientists do not believe that organisms/bacteria originated extraterrestrially.
  27. During the origin of bacteria was there any free oxygen -- in the Earth's atmosphere?
    There was no free Oxygen -- in the atmosphere during the origin of bacteria.
  28. Which two men in 1953 did a four-step experiment of the Earth's early environnment and, within days, discovered many organic molecules, which included the making of 5 different amino acids?
    Stanley Miller and Harold Urey developed a simple four-step experiment that demonstarted how complex organic molecules could have arisen in earth's early environment.
  29. In phase 2, what is meant by "RNA World Hypothesis"?
    (Earth's early environment 4-step experiment)
    The "RNA World Hypothesis" proposes that the world may have been filled with RNA-based life before it became filled with DNA-base life.
  30. In phase 3, what is the name for the round units that spontaneously form from phospholipids?
    (Earth's early environment 4-step experiment)
    Microspheres is the name of the round bodies that spontaneously form from phospholipids.
  31. What were the five observations made by George Ernst Stahl when he burned a candle inside a sealed bell jar? What substance coated the inside of that jar?
    • The five observations made by George Ernst Stahl about a burning candle were:
    • (1) Heat is produced
    • (2) Candle loses weight and is consumed
    • (3) Soot is created
    • (4) Combustion stops before all of the candle is consumed
    • (5) Water is produced from the flame and coats the inside of the bell jar.
  32. Stahl proposed that ________ is given off by a candle inside a sealed bell jar, and that this substance prevents further burning. He further proposed that animals give off this substance in their own ________ process.
    Stahl proposed that Phlogistan is given off by a candle inside a sealed bell jar, and that this substance prevents further burning. He further proposed that animals give off this substance in their own combustion process.
  33. If a lit candle inside a sealed bell jar loses weight, according to the "conservation of matter" law, the air must _______ in weight.
    If a lit candle inside a sealed bell jar loses weight, according to the "conservation of matter" law, the air must increase in weight.
  34. If an animal (mouse) is inside a sealed bell jar and its weight decreases, the weight of the air must _______ in weight.
    If an animal (mouse) is inside a sealed bell jar and its weight decreases, the weight of the air must increase in weight.
  35. What kind of organism is it that can turn bad air into good air, as demonstrated Joseph Priestly? What did he call this process?
    Plants are the organisms that can turn bad air into good air as determined by Joseph Priestly. He called this process dephlogistication.
  36. Jan Ingenhousz showed the necessity for two more factors in order to turn bad air into good air. What were they?
    Jan Ingenhousz showed the necessity for the green parts of plants and light in order to turn bad air into good air.
  37. When sulfur or phosphorous are burned, do they increase or decrease in weight? What then happens to the weight of the air inside the bell jar? Would a lit candle inside the bell jar with sulfur or phosphorous go out or remain lit? Would a mouse inside the jar live or die? Did this observation by Lavosier support or reject the "phlogiston" hypothesis? What         isr  Lavosier the father of?
    When sulfur or phosphorous are burned they increase in weight. Air then has to decrease in weight. A lit candle inside the jar with burning sulfur of phosphorous would go out. A mouse inside the jars with the burning sulfur or phosphorous would die. These observations cause Lavosier, the father of modern chemistry, to reject the phlogiston concept.
  38. Lavosier found that red oxide of mercury and strong light would give rise to _______ air, which would allow a candle to burn or a mouse to live. What do we call this substance? Therefore, when sulfur or phosphorous burned, they increased in weight by taking up ________ air inside the bell jar.
    Lavosier found that red oxide of mercury and strong light would give rise to vital air, which would allow a candle to burn or a mouse to live. We now call vital air oxygen.  Therefore, when sulfur or phosphorous burned, they increased in weight by taking up vital air inside the bell jar.
  39. When Lavosier burned charcoal with vital air he got an air that could not be breathed, or allow a candle to burn. What did he call this air, and what do we call it now?
    • Fixed air is the air that you cannot breath, and Lavosier called it Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
  40. In Lavoisier's experiment, if the candle did not go out or the mouse dies due to the presence of phlogistan, then why did the candle go out and the mouse die?
    The mouse didn't die or the candle go out due to the presence of phlogistan, but due to the absence or consumption of vital air (free Oxygen-O2)
  41. Based on Lavoisier's denouncement of phlogistan, Ingenhousz proposed that plants were not dephlogisticating the air, but were exchanging (in Lavoisier's terms) _______ air for _______ air, or (in modern terms) exchanging ________ gas for ________ gas.
    Based on Lavoisier's denouncement of phlogistan, Ingenhousz proposed that plants were not dephlogisticating the air, but were exchanging (in Lavoisier's terms) vital air for fixed air, or (in modern terms) exchanging Oxygen gas for Carbon Dioxide gas.
  42. When a plant changes O2 for CO2, does the plants weight increase or decrease? Does the weight of the air inside the bell jar increase or decrease?
    When a plant exchanges O2 for one CO2 its weight increases by a carbons worth. Hence, the weight of the air inside the bell jar has to decrease by a carbons worth.
  43. Combustion stops, not because of the presence of phlogistan, but because of the absence or consumption of _________.
    Combustion stops, not because of the presence of phlogistan, but because of the absence or consumption of oxygen.
  44. Animals suffocate, not because of the presence of carbon dioxide, but because of the absence of ________, which is required for combustion.
    Animals suffocate, not because of the presence of carbon dioxide, but because of the absence of oxygen, which is required for combustion.
  45. When an animal undergoes respiratory combustion, does its weight increase or decrease? Does the weight of the air increase or decrease?
    When an animal undergoes repiratory combustion its weight decreases by a carbons worth, and the air increases in weight by a carbons worth.
  46. During the exchange of gases with the plant, candle, or mouse, does the overall weight of the sealed bell jar increase, decrease, or stay the same? ( Remember the 'conservation of matter' law)
    The overall weight of the bell jar stays the same.
  47. What is the process that creates an animal's body heat?
    The process that creates an animals heat is respiration (which is cellular combustion)
  48. By using heavy oxygen, from which compound did Melvin Calvin demonstrate the source of free oxygen (O2)?
    Melvin Calvin by using heavy oxygen proved that the source of free oxygen was the oxygen in the water molecule.
  49. In respiration, free oxygen becomes part of what molecule?
    In respiration, free oxygen becomes part of the oxygen that is part of the water molecule.
  50. What compound in the air is responsible for 93.3% of the increase in a plants weight? From where does the other 6.7% come?
    The Carbon and Oxygen of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) accounts for 93.3% of the increase in a plants weight, while 6.7% comes from the Hydrogen (H) of the water molecule (H2O).
  51. Oxidation is always coupled to ________.
    Oxidation is always coupled to reduction.
  52. Oxidation means to rip-off ______.
    Oxidation means to rip off electrons.
  53. When food loses an electron, does it gain or lose energy?
    When food loses an electron it loses energy.
  54. In the modern interpretation and language of respiration, oxygen steals electrons from food (along with a proton, which means it's removing a hydrogen atom), and the food is oxidized to ______ _______, while the oxygen is reduced to ________.
    In the modern interpretation and language of respiration, oxygen steals electrons from food (along with a proton, which means it's removing a hydrogen atom), and the food is oxidized to carbon dioxide, while the oxygen is reduced to water.
  55. In the modern interpretation and language of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide oxides water into free _______, while the carbon dioxide is reduced to ________.
    In the modern interpretation and language of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide oxides water into free oxygen, while the carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose (C6H12O6).
  56. How many net ATP molecules are generated from aerobic respiration?
    The number of net ATP molecules generated from aerobic respiration is 36.
  57. What is the name of respiration without oxygen? How many ATP molecules are generated from this process. Which process is most efficient?
    Respiration without oxygen is termed anaerobic respiration, which generates 2 ATP molecules. Aerobic respiration is much more efficient than anaerobic respirations.
  58. What is historical order and why, of the processes of aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and photosynthesis.
    Because there was no oxygen (O2) anaerobic respiration had to be first, followed by photosynthesis, which is the source of free oxygen and food, and allowed aerobic respiration to evolve.

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