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The skin is composed of?
- Skin (Integument)
- Skin derivatives
What are the different skin derivatives?
- Sweat glands
- Oil glands
What are the different skin functions?
- 1) Protects deeper tissue from:
- 2) Aids in heat regulation
- 3) Aids in excretion of urea and uric acid
- 4) Synthesizes vitamin D
- 5) Detection of stimuli
Skin protects deeper tissue from:
- Mechanical damage
- Chemical damage
- Bacterial damage
- Thermal damage
- Ultraviolet radiation
What are the different skin structures?
Epidermis (5 strata)?
- Stratified squamous epithelium
- Keratinocytes from several layers
- Layers of epidermis
Whats are the layers of epidermis?
- Stratum basale
- Stratum spinosum
- Stratum granulosum
- Stratum corneum
What are the two layers of dermis?
What does the Papillary layer consist of?
- Supports and nourishes overlying epidermis
- Projections called dermal papille
- Pain receptors
- Capillary loops - inside the dermal papillae
- (There are less fibers in papillary layer which means less white blood flow/cells)
What does the reticular layer consist of?
- Meshwork of collagen and elastic fibers
- Blood Vessels
- Nerve receptors
Hypodermis (subcutaneous) "below the dermis"
- Not part of the skin
- Anchors skin to underlying organs
- Composed mostly of adipose tissue (accounts for half of the bodys stored fat) "subcutanecus fat"
What are the different aooendages of the skin?
- Sebaceous glands
- Sweat glands
- Produce oil (sebum) a lubricant for the skin
- Most with ducts that empty into hair follicles
- Glands are activated at puberty (under hormonal control) ex-acne
- Widley distributed in skin
- Two types :
- Eccine (Merocrine)
- Modified sweat glands
- ceruminous glands - produce ear wax
- mammary glands
coiled portion in dermis, distributed body wide, helps dissipate excess heat through evaporative cooling)
ducts empty into hair follicles, axillary and pubic regions, activated by stress, pain, and sexual excitement, fatty acid and protein secretion
Strand of dead, hard keeatinized epthielial cells
Hair follicle consist of:
- Tubelar invaginations of the epidermis
- Formed by mitotically active statum basale cells
- Melancocytes provide pigment for hair color
- Dermal capillaries provide blood supply
- Nail fold (lateral and proximal skin coverings)
- Nail bod: sheet of hard keratin attached to nail bed, Lunula-crescent shaped vascular area at proximal end of the nail bed and visable through the nail. used for visual check of oxygen status in patients (clinical: Eponychiitis, ingrown toenail)
- Injection sites
- Lines of cleavage
- Streach marks
- Decubitus ulcers or "bed sores"
- Skin Cancer
Where are the different injection sites?
- Intadermal (ID) within the dermis ex-collagen
- Subcutaneous ("subcue" or SQ) ex-insulin for diabetics, lots of blood vessles
- Intramuscular (IM) Small amounts is faster than SQ
- Intravenous (IV) fastest method "fastest delivery to the heart"
Fluid-filled pocket between epidermis and dermis
Lines of cleavage:
Formed by uniform alignment of collagen and elastic fibers
Tearing of the dermis due to rapid stress
Decubitus ulcers or Bed sores
- Blood suppy restricted --> ischemia (no oxygen/reduced) --> necrosis (tissue death)
- Bacterial infections result, difficult to heal, secondary intention
Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals
Associated dangers with burned skin:
- Electrolyte imbalance
- Circulatory shock
Rules of nine?
Ways to determin the extent of the burn
Severity of burns
- 1st (redness and swelling) epidermis only
- 2nd (Blistering) epidermis and part of dermis
- 3rd (destruction) death of tissue, through entire dermis and sometimes lower
Types of skin cancer?
- Basal cell carinoma (least malignant, but most common)
- Squamous cell carcinoma (usually a sun induced mutation and grows rapidly and will metastasize if not removed)
- Malignant melanoma (most deadly)
Key to servival is early detection...what is the ABCD rule?
- A (asymmetry) not same size
- B (irregular border) not smooth
- C (color) different colors in same spot
- D (diameter-greater than 6mm)