Anthropology 1.txt

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Anthropology 1.txt
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    • Fitness
    • Relative reproductive success
  1. Fitness
    Individuals genetic contribution to next generation compared to con specifies
  2. Fitness
    Distinct from fecundity, (number of offspring produced)
  3. Natural Selection
    Mechanism of evolutionary change
  4. Natural Selection
    Refers to frequencies of traits in populations due to relative fitness of individuals
  5. Adaptation
    Functional response of organisms to their environment
  6. Adaptation
    Produced by natural selection
  7. Adaptation
    Can occur during lifetime or as part of evolution
  8. Competition
    Competition is main driving force behind evolutions of species
  9. Competition
    Two forms: inter specific competition intra-specific competition
  10. Predation
    Relationship between predator and prey can lead each species to evolve, but the competition within a species is generally more important for natural selection
  11. Predation
    Predator :animal that hunts or kills other organisms for food
  12. Predation
    Herbivores sometimes referred to as plant predators
  13. Predation
    Hierarchies of predation are alled food chain
  14. The tropical structure: food chain and food web
    Food chain are short
  15. The tropical structure: food chain and food web
    Relationships predictable. I. E top carnivores always big in size small in numbers
  16. The tropical structure: food chain and food web
    Esacially important species act as keystone species
  17. Parasitism
    Non-cooperative co-evolution :one benefits, and others harmed
  18. Parasitism
    Parasitic lives on tissue or efforts of host
  19. Parasitism
    Differ from predation; host kept alive
  20. Cooperation mutualism
    A type of co-evolution where both parties in relationship benefit
  21. Commensualism
    Type of co-evolution where are partner benefits but little impact on other
  22. Darwin finches : a case study in natural selection
    Finches pivotal in Darwin formulation of Natural Selection
  23. Phylogenety
    Family Tree
  24. Stabilizing selection
    Birds with low beak depth and high beak depth tend not to surrive
  25. Gametes
    Male and female have different gametes (Reproductive cells)
  26. Reproductive strategies
    Males aim to maximize repro, and success through frequent mating (quantity over quality)

    Female invest more in offspring, and are "choisier" (quality over quantity)

    Sexs different strategies can produce differences in behavior, morphology

    Sexes interests can be in conflict
  27. Male competition I: display
    Most common male competition

    Most intense in species with "harem", social groups
  28. Male competition II: display
    Males advertise good genes through trait, behavior

    Female choose mates on basis of traits

    Female preference leads to more elaborate male ornamentation /behavior

    Female-fitness increased by ons that win "beauty contest"
  29. Male competition III: provisioning
    Male bower birds of the fmiy ptilonorhyncbidae build elaborate structures solely to attractive potential mates
  30. Male competition IV :sperm
    Competition around fertilization

    Occurs with promiscuous females

    Males producing larger amounts of high quality gametes favored by natural selection
  31. Females are choosier
    Females invest more in offspring

    Especially true of mammals where offspring develop within body of female, females lactate post partum
  32. Males: the weaker sex
    More expendable biologically

    Little or no parental care among all mammal spices

    Less parental care than women in all human societies

    Die younger in all societies
  33. Monogamy: an unusual reproductive strategy
    Occurs where both parents must support offspring

    Very rare among msmmsls

    Monogamous species notbusally dimorphic

    Monogamy rarely occurs for life - serial monogamy far more common
  34. Phenotype
    Observed or detectable physical characteristic of an orgsnism
  35. Alleles
    Alternate forms of gene

    Occurs at same location (locus), on se chromosome, and govern same traits

    Often used synonymously with gene but genes can contain multiple alleles
  36. Mendelian traits
    Characteristics influenced by alleles at single locus

    In the phenotype Mendelian traits result in discontinuous variation
  37. Homozygote
    Having same allele at the same locus on both members of a chromosomes pair
  38. Heterozygote
    Having different alleles at same locus on members of a chromosome pair
  39. Genotype
    Genetic makeup of an organism
  40. Dominant traits
    Governed by alleles expressed in phenotype even presence of another allele, capital (A)
  41. Recessive traits
    Governed by alleles masked in phenotype by presence of dominant allele, dominant indicated by blower (a)
  42. Independent assortment
    Genes controlling different traits are not linked-they are inherited independently
  43. Sex linked traits
    Found on x chromosome, not y

    Recessive traits, therefore, the are present in the male phenotype

    Examoles: baldness, and color blindness, and hemophilia
  44. Anthropology
    Anthropology is the study of humankind, viewed from the perspective of allpeople and all times
  45. the four fields of Anthropology
    cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, andphysical anthropology
  46. hominids
    humanlike beings
  47. bipedalism
    Walking on two legs
  48. nonhoning canine
    simply process food.
  49. simply process food.
    bipedalism, nonhoning chewing, complex materialculture and tool use, hunting, speech, and dependence on domesticated foods
  50. adaptive radiation
    out of one species branch closely related multiple species

    The diversifi cationof an ancestral group of organisms intonew forms that are adapted to specifi cenvironmental niches.
  51. James Hutton
    founded modern geology with his theory of the earth’sformation
  52. demography
    the study of population, especially with regard to birth, survival, anddeath and the major factors that infl uence these three key parts of life
  53. Robert Hooke
    studied the microscopic structure of fossil wood. Afterobserving that the tissue structure of the fossil wood was identical to the tissuestructure of living trees, Hooke concluded that the fossil wood derived from oncelivingtrees
  54. blending inheritance
    An outdated,disreputed theory that the phenotype ofan offspring was a uniform blend of theparents’ phenotypes.
  55. evolutionary synthesis
    A unifi ed theoryof evolution that combines genetics withnatural selection.
  56. Mutation
    A random change in a gene orchromosome, creating a new trait that maybe advantageous, deleterious, or neutral inits effects on the organism.
  57. karyotype
    complete set of chromosomes,

    The characteristics of thechromosomes for an individual organism ora species, such as number, size, and type.
  58. heteroplasmic
    Refers to a mixture ofmore than one type of organellar DNA,such as mitochondrial DNA, within a cell ora single organism’s body, usually due to themutation of the DNA in some organellesbut not in others.
  59. peptide bond
    Chemical bond that joinsamino acids into a protein chain

    As the tRNA strand builds off the mRNA template, the amino acids are chemicallylinked together
  60. heritability
    The proportion of phenotypicvariation that is due to inheritance ratherthan to environmental infl uence.
  61. antigens
    Substances, such as bacteria,foreign blood cells, and enzymes, thatstimulate the immune system’s antibodyproduction.
  62. Law of segregation
    declares that the mother and fathercontribute equally to an offspring’s geneticmakeup. For each gene, a person has twoalleles (which can be the same or different).One allele is from the person’s mother, andone is from the person’s father
  63.  polypeptide
    Also known as a protein,a chain of amino acids held together bymultiple peptide bonds.
  64. Alleles
    • alternate forms or varieties of a gene. The
    • alleles for a trait occupy the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes
    • and thus govern the same trait.
  65. Amino acid
    • organic
    • molecules that are building block of proteins. There are 20 different kinds of
    • amino acids in living things. Proteins are composed of different combinations
    • of amino acids assembled in chain-like molecules during the process of protein
    • synthesis.
  66. Chromosomes
    thread-like, gene-carrying bodies in the cell nucleus. They are visible only under magnification during certain stages of cell division. Humans have 46 chromosomes in each somatic cell and 23 in each sex cell.
  67. Codon
    a sequence of three nucleotide bases in RNA that codes for a specific amino acid.

     
  68. Crossing-over
    the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes in meiosis. This result in gametes with greater genetic diversity. Specifically, a portion of a chromosome is broken and reattached on another chromosome. Also referred to as Recombination.
  69. DNA
    (deoxyribonucleic acid): 
    a large organic molecule that stores the genetic code. DNA id composed of sugars, phosphates and bases arranged in a double helix shaped molecular structure. Segments of DNA in chromosomes correspond to specific genes.
  70. Dominant
    allele
    an allele that masks the presence of a recessive allele.
  71. Eukaryotic
    • multicelluar organisms (contrasted with prokaryotic
    • or single-celled organisms
  72. Evolution
    genetic change in a population of organisms that occurs over time.
  73. Exon
    a coding region of DNA.  They are transcribed to the final mRNA molecule (contrasted with introns which are non-coding regions that are spliced out from the tRNA molecule)
  74. Founder
    effect
    a small population effect in which the genes of a few people (the population founders) are inherited over time by a large number of descendants.
  75. Gametes
    sex cells: sperm or unfertilized egg cells produced in the testes and ovaries of animals. Gametes are produced by meiosis. They have half the number of chromosomes found in somatic cells.
  76.  Genes
    units of inheritance usually occurring at specific location, or loci, on a chromosome. A gene may be made up of hundreds of thousands of DNA bases. Genes are responsible for hereditary characteristics
  77. Gene
    flow
    the transference of genes from one population to another, usually as a result of migration. The loss or addition of individuals can change the gene frequencies of both the recipient and donor populations.
  78. Gene pool
    all of the genes in all of the individuals in a breeding population.
  79. Genetic
    drift
    random changes in gene frequencies resulting from chance. Genetic drift occurs in small populations.

     
  80. Genotype
    the genetic makeup of an individual. Genotype can refer to an organism’s entire genetic makeup or the alleles at a particular locus.
  81. Genotype
    the genetic makeup of an individual. Genotype can refer to an organism’s entire genetic makeup or the alleles at a particular locus.
  82. Heritability
    the percentage of phenotypic variation attributable to genotypic variation.
  83. Heterozygous
    a genotype consisting of two different alleles of a gene for a particular trait 
  84. Homologous chromosomes
    • chromosomes that are paired during meiosis. Such chromosomes are alike with regard to size and also position of the centromere. They also have the same loci coding for
    • the same traits.
  85. Homozygous
    • having the same allele at the same locus on both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes. An individual may be homozygous dominant (TT) or homozygous
    • recessive (tt).
  86. Hox
    • genes involved in the regulation of development. A type of regulatory gene or transcription factor Macroevolution:
    • major evolutionary changes in a population’s gene pool, occurring over many generations, resulting in the development of new species.
  87. Meiosis
    cell division in specialized tissues of ovaries and testes, which results in the production of gametes. Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only half the original number of chromosomes—23 in the case of humans.
  88. Microevolution
    changes in gene frequencies from one generation to the next. The accumulation of micro evolutionary change can result in macroevolution.
  89. Mitosis
    the simple cell division process that occurs in somatic cells. One cell divides into two offspring cells that are identical to each other in chromosome complement.
  90. Natural
    selection
    an evolutionary mechanism that occurs when some individuals of a population are better able to adapt to their environment and subsequently, produce more offspring. Differential reproductive success between individuals is the key. Those who produce more offspring have a greater influence on the gene frequencies of the next generation.
  91. Non-random mating
    mate selection based on one or more traits that are discriminated for or against. This is a mechanism of evolution. Includes positive and negative.
  92. Nucleotide
    basic building block of DNA and RNA. It consists of any one of four bases attached to a sugar and phosphate.
  93. Phenotype
    the observable or detectable characteristics of an individual organism: the physical expression of a genotype.

     
  94. Pleiotropy
    one gene affects more than one phenotypic trait
  95. Polygenism
    phenotypic trait affected by two or more genes
  96. Population
    • a more or less distinct group of individuals within a species who tend to restrict their mate selection to members of their group. Members of a population tend to have similar genetic characteristics due to generations of
    • interbreeding.
  97. Proteins
    any of a large number of complex organic molecules that are composed of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins serve a wide variety of functions. Proteins may be enzymes, hormones, antibodies, structural components, or gas transporting molecules.
  98. Protein synthesis
    Process by which proteins are built by cells
  99. Recombination
    shuffling of chromosomal alleles during the process of meiosis
  100. Recessive allele
    an allele that is masked in the phenotype by the presence of a dominant allele. Recessive alleles are expressed in the phenotype when the genotype is homozygous recessive (tt).
  101. RNA (ribonucleic acid) 
    : a type of nucleic acid that is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells. Unlike DNA, RNA is single stranded. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic code from the DNA and translates it with the help of transfer RNA (tRNA) at the site of the ribosomes in the cytoplasm in order to synthesize proteins.
  102. Speciation
    the evolution of new species from older ones.
  103. Species
    a natural population of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species (i.e., they cannot mate with them to produce fertile offspring)
  104. Trancription
    • First stage of protein synthesis. The formation of messenger RNA from free-floating nucleotides produced by cell.  First
    • stage of protein synthesis
  105. Translation: 
    Second stage of protein synthesis.  Transfer of amino acids by t RNA to the ribosomes, which are then added to the protein chain
  106. Transcription
    factor: 
    genes that determine when structural genes and other regulatory genes are turned on and off for protein synthesis
  107. Zygote
    fertilized egg 

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