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Two stimuli presented simultaneously.
Measure whether infants prefer one stimuli over the other.
Preferential looking technique
Decrease in response to repeated or continued stimulation.
The visual image increases as an object comes toward us, causing
the background to recede.
Optical expansion (kinetic depth cue)
The two eyes do not send the same signals to the brain because
there are different retinal images of the object in each eye.
the visual cortex combines the different neural signals from each eye to create depth perception.
The perceptual cues of depth that can be perceived by one eye alone.
Monocular depth cue
Although our retinal images of people and objects change as they move away from or toward us, our impression of the person or object stays the same size and shape.
Infants can perceive boundaries between objects.
What is Intermodal perception?
Combining the senses
refers to the sharpness of vision
How is visual acuity tested?
- “Fantz Box”
- Teller Acuity Cards
Infants are attracted to moving stimuli, but their eye movements are not smooth.
By 2–3 months, infants can track moving objects smoothly if the objects are moving slowly.
______ can perceive coherence among moving elements: Point-light displays.
______prefer patterned stimuli over plain stimuli; and faces over patterned stimuli.
Infants can turn toward the direction of the sound.
When is the auditory system fully developed?
- is well developed at birth, but hearing does not achieve adult
- level until 5 to 8 years.
What type of auditory preferences do infants have?
Young infants prefer to listen to human speech over non-speech sounds.
- Infants prefer their mother’s voice over a unfamiliar women’s
- Infants prefer to hear their native language over a foreign
- Infants can extract regularities from a continuous speech stream.
How do babies younger than 4 months explore the world of objects?
Infants explore the world _____ for the first few months.
What is the sticky mittens study show?
attached velcro gloves to hands of infants to see if they would grab more (developmental jumpstart in learning to explore objects)
What does smell perception look like at birth?
Sensitivity to smell develops ______ birth.
What kind of smell preferences do newborns have?
- Infants are sensitive to the smell of breast milk.
- Infant sense of smell draws them to their mothers.
When does taste perception develop?
Sensitivity to taste develops ____ birth.
what kind of taste preferences do newborns have?
How is this tested?
Newborns innately prefer sweet flavors.
- Young infants, like adults, make facial expressions when they
- experience different tastes.
What do studies find with regards to intermodal perception?
Infants are able to combine information from two or more senses.
Very young infants link oral and visual experiences.
- As they get older, infants integrate visual and tactile
- Infants at about 4 months can integrate speaking sounds with a
- picture of lips moving.
The understanding that objects have substance, maintain their identities when they change location, and ordinarily continue to exist when out of sight.
Young infants express surprise at events or objects that violate
Violation of expectancy method