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chattel actually means a personal possession
- permanent condition
- anyone can be a slave
- based on race, hereditary
- viewed as non human…property
Traditional African Slavery
- temporary condition
- those in slavery are debtors and POWs
- not based on race
- not hereditary
- most importantly slaves are viewed as human beings
The legal foundations of american slavery
FOUR COURT CASES
- 1624—White man Symon Tuchinge on trial for stealing a Spanish ship and kidnapping
- The court referred to John Phillip, a witness in the case, as “a negro Christened in England 12 yeers since, sworne and exam sayeth…”
- Symon is basically a pirate
- John Phillip testified against Symon
- “a negro sayeth”
- the beginnings of racism
- only person described in the court script by race
- making it sound like whiteness is the norm
- if you are not white, you must be listed as not white
- black Christian is able to testify…blacks…probably not
- if Christianity can override blackness, this says that evil (black) can be overcome by being a Christian
- arguing that blackness is a sin
- 1630 Case—White man Hugh Davis accused of having sex with a black woman
- It was ordered that Davis is:
- “to be soundly whipt before an assembly of negroes and others for abusing himself to the dishonor of God and shame of Christianity by defiling his body by lying with a Negro. Which fault he is to act next Sabbath day.”
- Davis’ race is never mentioned again
- Abuses himself
- Intentionally lowering his social status
- Who are the others
- Letting not only blacks, but whites as well
- Higginbotham argues that since she is black and not human, he is charged with…wait for it
- 1640, the courts try Robert Sweat, who impregnated a black woman owned by Lt. Sheppard.
- “The said negro woman shall be whipt at the whipping post and the said Sweat shall tomorrow in the forenoon do public penance for his offence at James city church in the time of devine service according to the laws of England in that case provided.”
- This is a property crime
- With her getting pregnant, she is less valuable
- Cant work as had as a pregnant woman
- Women died in childbirth all the time
- You had sex with a white man
- That’s overstepping your boundaries
- 1641, John Graweere, a black servant, buys his son and sues for his son’s freedom.
- “that the child shall be free from the said Evans or his assigns and to be and remain at the disposing and education of the said Graweere and the child’s godfather who undertaketh to see it brought up in the Christian religion as foresaid.”
- Godfather is probably white since his race is not mentioned
- Ok to have him, but need a white person to “oversee” your raising
the development of american racism
- 1 establish white superiority
- 2 establish black inferiority
- 3 enforce the notions publicly
- 4 enforce the notions by way of theology
First—convince white colonists that regardless of their social or economic status, that they are superior to black colonists
Second—Convince blacks that they are inferior to all others
Third—Enforce the superiority of whites and inferiority of blacks in the most open and public manner
Fourth—Explain the inferiority of blacks and superiority of whites in reference to Christianity
Use of white-indentured labor became unsatisfactory to white colonizers
gain their freedom after _______ years
differences in slavery in european colonies
spanish colonies vs british colonies
- spanish did not send women to colonies
- mostly men who are trading and priests
- didnt settle colonies as families
- No women from spain, so you had intermariage
- British settle colonies as families
- had women
- less intermariage as a result for British
the middle passage
- Voyage to America called the “middle passage”
- Middle part of the “Triangular Trade”
- Also middle part of the slave’s journey from the interior of Africa
- Ships were overcrowded; disease rampant; extensive slave mortality
- Tight packing vs. loose packing
- Europe to africa, africa to new world, new world back to Europe
- Called the middle passage due to it being in the middle of the triangle
the transatlantic slave trade
umbrella way of looking at the Slave Trade
the triangle trade
how is this different than the TransAtlantic Trade
- Slaves, Goods going from place to place
- Europe to Africa to USA to Europe
emphasis is on goods being moved; this is what makes it different from the TAT
slave societies and societies with slaves
Societies with slaves are societies where slavery exists, but isn’t the economic or social foundation of the society. Chattel slavery might be one of many forms of unfree labor
Slave societies are societies where slavery is the economic and social foundation of the society—remove slavery and the society is fundamentally changed
regional differences in american slavery
middle colonies vs deep south colonies
the american paradox of slavery and freedom
- Freedom in a Slave Society
- Colonial propaganda
- “No taxation without representation”
- Use of racial imagery
- Revolutionary rhetoric of freedom rallied whites while tightening grip on blacks
- The “American paradox” – calls for freedom for whites while keeping blacks as property
Some colonists began to admit the contradiction
in the identity of oppressed colonist and slaveholder
- Birth of the Antislavery Movement
- White antislavery rhetoric not lost on slaves
- Boston slaves at forefront of black freedom petition movement
- Northern blacks participated in street protests
- Crispus Attucks
- Runaway slave killed in the Boston Massacre
- Buried with honors
- Phillis Wheatley
- Famous slave poet; intellect nurtured by master
- While a slave, traveled to England to oversee publication of her book, meet her patron
- Set free upon return
Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony in North America, led by a 29-year-old planter, Nathaniel Bacon.
- It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part
- About a thousand Virginians (including former indentured servants, poor whites and poor blacks) rose up in arms against the rule of Virginia Governor William Berkeley.
- Berkeley had recently refused to retaliate for a series of Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
- This prompted some to take matters into their own hands, attacking Native Americans, chasing Berkeley from Jamestown, Virginia, and ultimately torching the capital.
- Modern historians have suggested it may in fact have been a power play by Bacon against Berkeley and his favoritism towards certain members of court.
- Bacon's financial backers included men of wealth from outside Berkeley's circle of influence.
- The alliance between former indentured servants and Africans disturbed the ruling class, who responded by hardening the racial caste of slavery.
While the farmers did not succeed in their goal of driving Native Americans from Virginia, the rebellion did result in Berkeley being recalled to England.
thomas jeffersons views of aa and slavery
- Jefferson’s sympathetic words against slavery stricken from Declaration of Independence
- Unacceptable to delegations from the Lower South
"He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. This piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain."
"Determined to keep open a market where Men should be bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or restrain this execrable commerce"
"And that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people on whom he has obtruded them: thus paying off former crimes committed again the Liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another."
proslavery defense of slavery
Southerners promoted idea that slavery was a “positive good”
Four main arguments of proslavery theorists
- Blacks biologically and mentally inferior, a different species of humanity
- Necessity of slave labor for rise of civilization and economic development of South
- Blacks destined by history to subordinate position in society
- Slavery divinely ordained
slavery and the constitution
- The Language of the Constitution
- The words slavery and slave do not appear in Constitution
- Instead, “all other persons” or “such persons”
the three bodies as descrided by Stephanie Camp
- a site of domination; it was the body acted upon by slave-holders.
- Early constructions of African and black women's bodies and sexuality played a central role in rationalizing the African slave trade and gave license to sexual violence against enslaved women.
- Colonialand antebellum slaveholders believed that strict control of the blackbody, in particular its movement in space and time, was key to their enslavement of black people.
- the subjective experience of this process.
- It was the body lived in moments and spaces of control and force, ofterr or and suffering.
- This was the colonized body that, in Fanon'sterms, the person "of color" experienced "in the white world," where "consciousness of the body is solely a negating activity."
- re- claimed body, this outlawedbody, was the bond person's third body
- the body as site of pleasure and resistance.
- For enslaved women, whose bodies were so centra lto the history of black bondage,the third body was significant in two ways.
- First, their third body was a source of pleasure, pride, and self-expression
- Second, bond women's third body was a political site
- it was an important symbolic and material resource in the plantation South, and its control was fiercely contested between owner and owned.
the geogrphy of confinement (space and time) as described by Stephanie Camp
- Not only a power or labor relation,"[e]nslavement was captivity."
- Accordingly, black mobility appears to have been the target of more official and planter regulations than otheraspects of slave behavior.
- Slaveholders strove to create controlled and controlling landscapes that would determine the uses to which enslaved people put their bodies.
- But body politics in the Old South were not dictated by a monologue as slaveholders wished.
- To the contrary, slave owners' attempts to control black movement-and, indeed, most as- pects of black bodily experience-created a terrain on which bond- people would contest slaveholding power.
AA response to the american revolution
freedom applies to me too
whats the best way for AA to get this
go to British
americans now say, come join us, after not allowing it
overt and covert resistance to slavery
Rebellion/Revolt is overt resistence to slavery. Most common was running away—well-understood resistance, by running away enslaved people gained their own freedom and challenged the institution. This is enslaved people actively fighting back; sometimes violently
Everyday resistance is the often covert resistance employed by enslaved people against their slave owners or the slave system. It was, in the words of Stephanie MH Camp, “quiet ways of reclaiming a measure of control over goods, time, or part of one’s life.”
breaking tools, truancy, faking unintelligence, etc are examples of covert
everyday resistance to slavery
As historians began expanding their definition of resistance and looking for a middle ground between rebellion and accommodation, they developed their understanding of everyday resistance.
Everyday resistance often revolved around issues of work
. Slavery was about controlling labor, and was a system designed for the slave owner to define the terms of labor. Any success enslaved people had in controlling their own labor was resistance to the system.
Ways that enslaved people used everyday resistance to control their labor included: feigning illness, truancy (stealing time), breaking tools, feigning ignorance, slowing down, and sabotage (including arson).
- Everyday resistance was not just about work, it also included theft--enslaved people often stole food to supplement their rations, clothes, and liquor from their slave owners.
- Slaves realized that as legal property, there was a contradiction in accusing them of stealing other property.
- As Frederick Douglass said, a slave stealing food from the slave owner was simply “taking the meat out of one tub and putting it in another.”
Everyday resistance has also been defined culturally, as the slave system was often designed to control the families, religion, and minds of the enslaved. Enslaved people resisted these measure as well, working to keep families connected, conduct independent religious services, and hold on to African traditions.
By challenging the institution of slavery on a daily basis, in a variety of ways, enslaved people were creating AGENCY within a system designed for their oppression.
historiography of slavery
In the early part of the twentieth century, the consensus among most historians was that enslaved people were passive and contented under slavery
. The most prominent historian promoting this view was U.B. Phillips in American Negro Slavery (1918)
Historians holding this view argued that the institution of slavery was a benevolent, paternalistic institution that was mutually beneficial for slave owners and the enslaved.
- 100% serious…not just rhetoric to make people feel better about themselves; at this time, this was popular opinion; he didn’t just say it, then people started believing it, he just wrote the popular opinion
- Although this idea was challenged in numerous works by scholars like WEB DuBois, Carter G. Woodson, and others, it persisted into the late 1950s and early 1960s.
- Although he did not agree with Phillips that slavery was benevolent, one result of the slave as passive under slavery thesis was Stanley Elkins’ Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (1959).
- Elkins compared enslaved people to concentration camp survivors, and argued that slavery had forced African-Americans to become docile, submissive, and child-like.
As the modern Civil Rights Movement developed, it served as a direct challenge to the passive slave thesis. Segregationists had argued that the Jim Crow system, much like slavery, served to pacify African-Americans and create a society in which everyone’s place in the hierarchy was set.
Segregationists further argued that everyone benefitted from such a system.
- When average African-Americans began challenging Jim Crow, it served notice that African-Americans would challenge white supremacy.
- African-Americans NOT PASSIVE VICTIMS.
In searching for the foundations of the Civil Rights Movement, historians studied the ways that African-Americans had been challenging slavery and Jim Crow.
the growth of the cotton kingdom
Eli Whitney invention of the cotton gin, revolutionized the process of seperating raw cotton from its seed
Louisiana had a rapid population increase once the demand for cotton ushered in rising prices and profits as did mississippi and alabama
These states produced over 50% of the nations cotton, and if you include Georgia, the number shoots up to almost 80%
These states were deemed the name, Kings of Cotton
the internal slave trade
as we are expanding westward, with the cotton gin, slave states go from maryland and virginia to alabama and misissippi
old tobacco states become cotton states
compared to the middle passage since people are being ripped from their families
plays with expansion of slavery card coming up
varried from state to state but had the same viewpoint:
- slaves are not people but property
- laws should protect the ownership of such property
- law should protect whites against any dangers that might arise from the presence of large number of slaves
- slave could not strike a white person
- whites killing blacks rarely constituted murder
- the rape of a slave, by someone other than the master, was a crime
- slaves had no standing in court
- they could not offer testimony; except against other slaves
life for free AA in the antebellum period
antebellum peiod meaning PRIOR TO THE CIVIL WAR
- southern states made laws that barred the entrance of free blacks because they thought it would undermine slavery
- black laws appeared throughout the Midwest, eliminating free black in-migration; many enacting laws to deter them from settling withing their borders
- states where slavery never existed still had extreme racial intolerance
- in spite of all of this, free blacks in ohio managed to found at least two newpapers
- headed west
- populations of blacks spiked in ohio, indiana, and illinois due to runaway slaves
the dred scott case
- Dred Scott was a slave.
- His owner took him outside the south and through states that did not allow slavery.
- These states had rules that any enslaved person brought into the state became free.
- Dred Scott sued to try to win his freedom.
- The Dred Scott case had a very broad and damaging outcome.
- The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott, a negro, had no rights whatsoever. wtf...
- He was property, not a person or a citizen.
- He had no right to sue in federal court.
- Furthermore, the court ruled that the federal government had no legal right to interfere with the institution of slavery.
- Slavery advocates were encouraged and began to make plans to expand slavery into all of the western territories and states.
- This created much of the tension that caused the Civil War.
david walkers appeal
arguably the most radical of all anti-slavery documents, caused a great stir when it was published in September of 1829 with its call for slaves to revolt against their masters.
- The goal of the Appeal was to instill pride in its black readers and give hope that change would someday come.
- It spoke out against colonization, a popular movement that sought to move free blacks to a colony in Africa.
- America, Walker believed, belonged to all who helped build it
- Copies of the Appeal were discovered in Savannah, Georgia, within weeks of its publication.
- Within several months copies were found from Virginia to Louisiana.
David Walker’s Appeal foreshadowed Pan Africanism.
Sterling Stuckey argues that Walker is the father of black nationalism in America.
Walker’s Appeal gets banned in GA and NC, and was dangerous to have in other states.
Walker facilitated its distribution through sailors.
Bounty put on Walker’s head--$1000 dead and $10000 alive.
Walker dies in 1830—poison or tuberculosis????
alliances and conflicts between white and black abolitionists
- When ending slavery, it wouldn’t just end, all of these bullet point are things that they disagreed on and would have to come to an agreement on
- Colonization is most important
- If slavery ends, what happens to the free people Lincoln had this problem
- Keep here, send them back ???
- Lincoln finally decides he wants colonization
- Racial equality and paternalism
- Political participation
- Violence or non violence
- The role of women in the movement—Sojourner Truth, the Grimke sisters, Lucretia Mott, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
reconstruction and redemption
- rad rep trying to rebuild the south
- not buildings, but the mindset of the south
- take power from them, and reconstruct their society
- give blacks poor white equal opportunity
- former confererates trying to keep the south the way it was prior to the war
Founder: Confederate Civil War veterans Captain John C. Lester, Major James R. Crowe, John D. Kennedy, Calvin Jones, Richard R. Reed, Frank O. McCord
The group was presided over General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who is believed to have been the first Grand Wizard -- the title for the head of the organization.
a racist, anti-Semitic movement with a commitment to extreme violence to achieve its goals of racial segregation and white supremacy created after the civil war
- The Klan burned churches and schools and drove thousands of people out of their homes.
- Because local law enforcement officials were unable or unwilling to stop the Klan, Congress passed the Force Bill in 1871, giving the federal government the power to prosecute the Klan.
disenfranchisement of AA in the south
- Preventing Black Voting Legally
- Mississippi Plan
- Suffrage amendment with purpose of disfranchisement set precedent for several other states
- Poll tax, disqualification for convicts, required persons to read and understand state constitution
- Other states use as a model
- The Black Response
- Bitterly denounced racist amendments; unable to garner white support
- Effective Disfranchisement
- By 1910, blacks effectively disfranchised in North Carolina, Alabama, Virginia, Georgia, and Oklahoma
- Back to Slavery
- “White primary” excluded blacks by party rulesBlacks had little political clout
the development of Jim Crow Laws
De Jure segregation
- Jim Crow was designed to create a permanent inequality in American society.
- There was no uniform code of Jim Crow, and it wasn’t enacted all at once.
- Rather, different locations had different versions of Jim Crow that developed over time.
- However, all had the same goal—white supremacy.
- segregation that is reinforced by the legal system.
- Separate schools, segregated lunch counters, etc.
legal, laws on the books, someone can point to the book, and say, this is what the law says
De Facto segregation
- segregation that is reinforced through custom.
- African Americans giving Caucasians the sidewalk, not making eye contact, etc.
- no law saying whites only on sidewalks, but that the rule cause it’s the custom in that society
- Blacks called by their first name
- Whites called Mr. Mrs. Miss
- Regardless of age
- 30 year old black man called a 6 year old white boy Mr.
Both forms were present in the Jim Crow South, and African Americans had to negotiate the terrain of both
The Tripartite system of oppression
Jim Crow Segregation was a Tripartite system of oppression:
- 15th gives them the right to vote, they make laws to keep this from them
- KKK uses violence to keep them from voting
- When their guy wins, they pass laws to keep them from voting
- After 1900, no AA are voting
- Southern economy based on free/cheap AA slavery
- After war, they still want this
- Sharecropping created
- Job opportunities limited
- Blacks were big time into barbering
- Economy becomes crappy, whites need jobs
- Make laws to make it illegal for blacks to cut whites hair
- Separate seats on busses
- Separate drinking fountains
- This is the one everyone talks about
- Do this to show that one race is on top and one race is on bottom
- Interaction allowed only on an unequal basis
Plessy v Ferguson
1895 Supreme Court case upheld segregation doctrine of “separate but equal”
- In 1892, Homer Plessy deliberately challenged an 1890 segregation law in LA by sitting in the “white” car and declaring that he was “colored.”
- He was arrested and eventually case went to the Supreme Court.
- Plessy argued that Jim Crow violated 13th and 14th Amendments.
- Supreme Court ruled 8-1 against Plessy, ruling that there was a difference between political and social equality.
- Plessy v. Ferguson was not the beginning of Jim Crow Segregation, rather it was the federal government’s approval of an existing segregationist system.
- However, after the decision, there was an increase in the amount and severity of Jim Crow legislation.
- Violence was the undergirding feature of Jim Crow segregation.
- Those who challenged the existing social order were often attacked.
Seperate but Equal
"there is a difference between political and social equality"
if you have a white school, you must have a black school
segregation is ok
- doesnt work that way in reality
- blacks have less money for school
- crappy buildings
- ld books
Brown vs Board of Education over-rules it
- Says that seperate but equal is inherently unequal