Lecture 1- MINERALS
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Definition of a mineral
- Naturally occuring,
- Homogeneous solid
- definite but generally not fixed chemical comp.
- ordered atomic arrangement
Is glass a crystal? why/ why not? what arethey considered?
- Lack long range atomic order
give 2 examples
Minerals that constitue an integral part of biological structures and processes.
- Calcite (CaCo3) -shells of marine invertebrates, limestone
- Apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH,CL,F) - teeth and bone H=5
example of a mineral produced through this process?
The interaction of microbes and geological processes
pyrite FeS2- Produced by action of sulfate producing bacteria (shale and coal beds)
- pice of a mineral bounded, at least in part by regular crystal faces produced as the crystal grew.
example Quartz in granite vs Quartz CRYSTALS
Chemical composition layers
Minerals get more complex from core to crust
Lithosphere: brittle outermost layer (averge thickness ~ 100km) consiting of crust (oceanic and continntal) and uppermost mantle
Asthenosphere: Ductile later (from ~100km depth to perhaps as deep as 700m) within the mantle that deforms plastically
Era's of earths mineral evolution
- - Era of planetary accretion
- 250 minerals
- -Era of Crust and Mantle
- 1500 minerals
- -Era of bio-mediated minerology
- 4500 minerals
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