AP PSYCH UNIT 1

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AP PSYCH UNIT 1
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2012-10-08 20:54:46
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HISTORY & CAREERS
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  1. ARISTOTLE
    • Before 30 BCE
    • Greek Naturalist Philosopher who theorized about learning. memory, motivation, emotion, perception, personality
    • MOTIVATION: appetite drives animals
    • humans driven by pleasure -we have the ability to think about pleasure
  2. PLATO
    • Three Souls in a Chariot
    • White Horse- Obeys, thirst for honor, CONTROLLABLE
    • Black Horse- ill-mannered, desiring, UNCONTROLLABLE
    • Driver- Steers/ CONTROLLER of horses
  3. DESCARTES
    • 1596-1650
    • Dualism- viewed mind & body as interactive
    • [MIND follows BODY=BODY follows MIND]
    • Allowed for both voluntary and involuntary behavior
    • Ruled out areas other than brain for mental functions
  4. LOCKE (1632-1704)
    • TABULA RASA
    • Knowledfe should be aquired by careful observation
    • No innate ideas, all knowledge comes from experience or reflection
    • Mind is a blank slate written on by experience
  5. PSYCHOLOGY
    • Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
    • how they're affected by organisms
    • MENTAL state, PHYSICAL state, and ENVIRONMENTAL state
  6. GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY
    • Describe ways people behave
    • Understand causes of behavior
    • Predict how organisms behave in situations
    • Control/Modify behavior/mental processes
  7. BIRTH OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Leizpig, Germany
    • Many psychologists studied here
    • make psych a reputable science
  8. WILHELM WUNDT
    • Father of Psych
    • Experiments on Perception and Sensation
    • primary focus CONSCIOUSNESS
    • Didnt think that higher order mental processes could be studied experimentally
    • trained in med & philosophy
    • wrote books about psych, phil, ethic, and logic
  9. WUNDTS GOALS
    • Make psych independent discipline
    • 1. Analyze conscious into elements
    • 2. Discover how elements are synthesized
    • 3. Determine laws governing that organization
    • Believed that whole is larger than sum of all parts
  10. INTROSPECTION
    • Looking inwards at one's own mental processes
    • NOT objective, completely SUBJECTIVE
    •  ===> FAILS miserably
    • Systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience
  11. APA
    • Founded in 1822==>grown in size
    • has a division for high school students
    • oversees ALL current research not done in universities
    • maximize organizational effectiveness
    • President= Suzanne Bennett Johnson PhD
  12. APA: G STANLEY HALL
    • First pres of APA
    • Est. First Psych Lab in US in 1883 John Hopkins University
    • Started American Journal of Psychology
  13. TITCHENER
    • Wundt's student @ Cornell
    • Studied nature of mental experiences
  14. STRUCTURALISM
    • Edward Tictchener
    • Analyze sensations, images, feelings into their most basic content
    • task of psych is to analyze conciousness into its elements & investigate how these elements are related
  15. WILLIAM JAMES 1842-1910
    • Functionalism
    • Searching for building block
    • WASTE OF TIME: brain/mind constantly changing
  16. PSYCHS PRINCIPLES OF DISCIPLINE
    PHILOSOPHY & PHYSIOLOGY
  17. FUNCTIONALISM
    • WILLIAM JAMES
    • Psych should investigate the function/purpose of consciousness rather than structure
  18. Principles of Psychology
    • Book that William James wrote
    • most influential text in psych
  19. EBBINGHAUS
    • Published classic studies on memory
    • Learning/ forgetting =REVIEW all notes right after learning information
  20. BEHAVIORIST THEORY
    • WATSON
    • All behavior is observable and measurable
    • (Give up mentalism for behaviorism)
    • Psych can NEVER be as objective as bio/chem
    • ABANDON Consciousness
  21. JOHN WATSON
    • BEHAVIORISM
    • Consciousness is not objective,
    • "I can take a chid and make him into anything, a beggar, a doctor, a thief"
    • MENTAL processes are too private to observe
  22. NATURE VS NURTURE
    whether behavior is determined mainly by genetic inheritance(nature) or by environment and experiences (nurture)
  23. IVAN PAVLOV
    • BEHAVIORISM
    • Russian exp. showed automatic involuntary behavior in learned responses to specific stimuli in the environment
    •  "Classical Conditioning"=could make a dog salivate by ringing a bell and showing piece of meat
  24. B.F. SKINNER
    • BEHAVIORISM
    • "FREE WIIL IS AN ILLUSION" =>CONTROVERSY
    • Private events can be studied as long as they are treated as a form of behavior
    • exp. with learning and memory
    • All behavior is result of reward and punishment in past
  25. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE
    organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral/negative outcomes
  26. CRITICISMS OF BEHAVIORISM
    • Treats humans as robots, as if we have no free will
    • Excluded all behavior that cant be seen
    • ALL behavior cant be explained by reward/punishment
  27. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
    How people aquire new behavior by learning and oberving and imitating others
  28. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
    • BODY LANGUAGE
    • Visibly able to see a certain behavior by looking at REACTIONS, OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR
    • EX:
    • Somethings wrong with Maria because shes sweating
    • Derek ignores Addison
    • George annoyed by Ulcer patient family, and gets quiet
    • Yang uncomfortable by religion talk
  29. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
    • explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
    • behavior GREATLY influenced by how people cope with sexual urges
    • can be controlled by digging  below the surface to uncover roots of personality
    • People are NOT masters of their minds
  30. SIGMUND FREUD
    • Studied Neurology of brain
    • Convinced that mental patients difficulties were due to mental rather than physical problems.
    • Distress from problems dating back to childhood
    • Treated mental disorders through PSYCHOANALYSIS(therapy)
  31. UNCONSCIOUS
    • What were unaware of
    • contains thoughts, memories and desires that are well below surface conscious awareness but exert GREAT influences on behavior
    • All of our impulses are sexual and agressive in nature, since we cant accept them in conscious, they find their expression through dreams
    • based on variety of observations=>slips of tongue reveal a persons true personality
  32. PSYCHOANALYSIS
    • Freuds method for treating people with emotional problems
    • FREE ASSOC (first word comes to mind when hearing one word)
    • THERAPY
  33. INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
    • Book by Freud
    • Sold 600 copies in 1900, today sells millions every year=>people more okay with idea of sexual agressiveness.
  34. AGGRESSIVE ENERGY
    • Basic human instinct lodged in unconscious
    • duty of society is to get people to channel their aggressive energy into productivity=> if not agression releases and violent activity occurs
  35. HIDDEN DESIRES
    people are hidden cesspools of hidden desires
  36. UNRESOLVED CONFLICTS
    • If these occur, this will cause fixations later in life
    • See Freuds Stages
  37. ID
    • BLACK HORSE=DEVIL
    • Wants/desires-basic primal instincts
  38. EGO
    • Reality Principle NEUTRAL
    • DRIVER
    • Realistic organized part
    • mediates between id&superego
  39. SUPEREGO
    • WHITE HORSE=ANGEL
    • Conscious mind
    • "Do the right thing"
  40. FREUDS STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEV
    • ORAL(0-2years) Erotic focus on mouth=sucking/biting
    • ANAL(2-4 years)Erotic focus on the anus=toilet training too late or too soon
    • PHALLIC(4-6 years) Separates males & females, erotic focus on genitals
    • Oedipal=boys fall in love with their mothers
    • Electra=girls fall in love with their fathers
    • LATENCY STAGE(6-12 years) puberty-time of sexual repression, focus on same sex relationships, beliefs and values
    • GENITAL STAGE(12+) adult-from puberty on, no fixations at this stage
  41. PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH
    • FOCUSES ON THE PAST- EMOTIONS
    • EX:
    • -Maria is afraid bc she was raised in a strict household
    • -Yang didnt grow up religious, so she is skeptical of holidays
    • -Baileys husband makes mistakes at work, so shes scared shell make a mistake and kill someone
  42. CRITICISMS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
    • -no focus on observable behavior
    • -neg viewpoint of mankind bc actions provoked by unconscious
    • -thoughts cant be sci. proven or disproven
    • -ignores political and social explanations of peoples problems
    • -focus on perceptions memories and thinking in our unconscious
  43. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
    • POSITIVE area of psych
    • Emphasize free will
    • people are NOT controlled by their environment, able to control one's own choices
    • destines to achieve FULL human potential (existentialism)
  44. ABRAHAM MASLOW
    • Hierarchy of needs
    • Descirbes peoples struggles to be the best they can possible be(self-actualization)
  45. CARL ROGERS
    • Optimistic view of psych
    • MAJOR criticizer of psychoanalysis & behaviorism
    • Believed all people thrive for perfection, some interrupted by a bad environment
  46. HUMANISTIC APPROACH
    • focuses on FULL POTENTIAL-we help everyone be the best they can be
    • Ex:
    • Kever is trying to study to pass his boards, and asking for help
    • Yangs talk with Justin to be a doctor by saving himself
  47. CRITICISMS OF HUMANISM
    • Believes all people are good, and they have the ability to heal themselves
    • Too vague, more of a philosophy of life rather than psych
  48. JEAN PIAGET
    Studied and focused attention on childrens cognitive development
  49. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
    • Thinking; how mental thoughts affect our behavior
    • Humanism gives more rise to cognitive theory
    • studies how we attend, percieve, think, remember, solve problems first then apply it to their behavior
  50. COGNITIVE APPROACH
    • PRESENT conscious thoughts=LEAVES EMOTION OUT
    • What am i doing and why am i doing it?
    • EX:
    • Burke needs to believe in something bigger than himself
    • Yang's belief in medicine and science
    • Kever keeps saying hes going to fail
  51. CRITICISMS OF COGNITIVE PSYCH
    • Downplays emotion
    • too mentalistic, hard to decide between competing cognitive explanations
    • strong approach=people like to focus on other's thoughts
  52. NEUROBIOLOGICAL PSYCH
    • Understand the nervous system
    • all actions/feelings associate with nervous system
    • Wundt=Psych based solely on bio and anatomy
    • interest in how bodily events interact with events in the external environment to produce perceptions memory/behavior.
    • Roger Sperry-nobel prize for Split Brain
  53. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Responsible for our behavior. specifically abnormal and immediate responses
  54. ANATOMY/BIOLOGY
    Solely responsible for human behavior
  55. NEUROBIOLOGICAL APPROACH
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM/BRAIN CHEMISTRY
    • EX:
    • - Justins new heart-his body physically rejected it
    • -Maria is sweating because of adrenaline
    • -Tim's brain-frontal lobe surgery
  56. CRITICISM OF NEUROBIOLOGICAL PSYCH
    • Ignores mental processes
    • Explains too little of human behavior
    • rejects environmental influences
  57. SOCIOCULTURAL PSYCH
    • Examines how cultural and political(religious)experience affect out everyday life
    • Gender influneces out behavior
    • Job opportunities influence peoples goals/ambitions
  58. SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH
    • SURROUNDINGS
    • EX:
    • -Chrismukkah
    • -Schoolplay-chief had to go to kids play more important
    • -Holidays make us depressed
    • -Mom preserves Justin's innocence
    • -Maria's coworkers are getting raises, so she wants one
  59. CRITICISMS OF SOCIOCULTURAL PSYCH
    • Not intrapsychic=nothing to do with ourselves or our mind
    • Cultural values/political systems: How norms and social influences affect behavior
  60. EVOLUTIONARY THEORY
    • Charles Darwin
    • Opposes religious teachings suggesting man evolved from ape
  61. NATURAL SELECTION
    heritable characteristics that provide a survival/reproduction advantage more likely to be passed onto other generations and be selected.
  62. EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH
    • CHANGE OVER BROAD GENERATIONS
    • We adapt and change over generations
    • EX:
    • -genetic link of ulcer family=loud
    • kids starting to realize skepticism of Santa
    • The belief in God
  63. ECLECTICISM
    • Use of diverse theories and schools of thought.
    • Mosaic=no single approach can create the whole picture
    • Unlikely for psych to EVER have unifying paradigm
    • Grander theories replaced by more specific
  64. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
    • Means "pattern"
    • Studies how people interpret sensory info in order to aquire knowledge
    • The whole is larger than the sum of its parts
  65. BIOLOGY
    • Studies the structure and functioning of living things
    • Psychologists use research to shed light on behavior or mental activites
  66. PSYCHIATRY
    • "sister science" MED SCHOOL
    • Medical specialty concerned with maladjustment and abnormal behavior.
    • More likely to treat mental disorders through drugs in addition with therapy
  67. PSYCHOLOGISTS
    • Among therapists
    • Education includes completion of Master's or Doctoral degree in clinical or counseling psychology followed by additional training
    • uses therapy
  68. BASIC PSYCH
    • Pure reasearch
    • Ex: how adults and adolescents differ in their moral issues such as honesty
  69. APPLIED PSYCH
    • Apply psychological findings
    • How can we use it?
  70. PRACTITIONERS
    Provide services such as therapy, counseling, consulting
  71. POSITIVE PSYCH
    • Martin Seligman
    • Make normal life more fulfilling
    • Goals:to find genius and talent
    • Helps determine how things go both wrong and right
  72. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS
    Psychologist who analyzes biological factors influencing behavior&mental processes
  73. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH
    Describe changes in behavior and mental processes that occur from birth through death old age and try to understand the causes and effects those changes have
  74. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGIST
    • Study how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, socially.
    • (childhood, adolescence,middleage, adulthood,old)
  75. EXPERIMENTAL
    conduct lab studies- experiments to understand learning, perception, memory, language, animal behavior (surveys)
  76. COGNITIVE
    Psychologists who study the mental processes underlying judgement, decision-making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought or cognition.
  77. PERSONALITY
    Study the characteristics that make individuals similar or different from one another
  78. COUNSELING
    • Help people deal with everyday problems; anxiety,low motivation, marital or family counseling
    • *Seek to assess, understand, and change abnormal behavior
  79. CLINICAL
    treating those with problems more severe than a counseling psychologist
  80. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL
    • concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work motivation, productivity, stress, personal selection, marketing strategies, product design
    • EX:
    • workers break times
  81. EDUCATIONAL
    • Teach/explani learning using psych principles.
    • Rewards to encourage achievement
    • ways  to improve learning in educational systems
    • Designs curriculum
  82. SCHOOL
    • Work with parents, teachers, and students to enhance student's performance and emotional development-often test for special programs
    • Counselors
  83. PSYCHOMETRIC
    • Evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, and personality
    • Statistical procedures to develop reliable and valid tests
  84. SPORT
    Psychologist who explores the relationships between athletic performance and such psych variables as motivation and emotion
  85. FORENSIC
    Psych who can assist in jury selection, evaluate defendants mental competence to stand trial & deal with other issues involving psych and the law
  86. COMMUNITY
    Psych who works to obtain psych services for people in need of help and to prevent psych disorders by working for changes in social systems
  87. SOCIAL
    • Psych who study how groups, institutions and social context influence individuals and vice versa.
    • Conformity, obedience, competition, cooperation, learning styles, and prejudice
  88. WATSON
    behaviorism, study consciousness
  89. FREUD
    • unconscious&sexuality, controversy
    • pychoanalytic theory
  90. JAMES
    functionalism, psych should investigate functions rather than the structure of consciousness
  91. MARG. FLOY WASHBURN
    • The Animal Mind
    • First woman with PhD in Psych.
  92. BF SKINNER
    • organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to (+)outcomes
    • free will is an illusion
    • Behaviorism
  93. CARL ROGERS
    • humanism
    • optimistic view of human nature
    • major critic of psychoanalytical and behaviorism

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