bio ch. 4

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bio ch. 4
2012-10-08 17:29:45


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  1. resolving power
    minimum distnce between 2 points that can be observed as 2 points; how much detail can be seen
  2. light microscope
    uses light to focus on specimen
  3. simple microscope
    has one magnifying lens
  4. compound microscope
    generally has 2 magnifying lenses; objective lens and ocular lens
  5. total magnification
    power of ocular lens mulitplied by the power of the objective lens
  6. electron microscope
    uses electrons to focus on a specimen; up to 1/2 million x
  7. transmission electron microscope
    used to see viruses and the insides of cells
  8. scanning electron microscope
    makes the 3D pictures of outside of cell
  9. prokaryotic cells
    small; no nucleus or organelles; can live on their own; bacteria
  10. plasma membrane
    selectively permeable, phospholipid bilayer
  11. nucleoid
    dna; chromosome; instructions to make every protein the bacteria will ever need
  12. ribosomes
    the site of protein manufacture
  13. cell wall
    sturdy cell wall which protects bacteria from harm; also gives bacteria its basci shape
  14. capsule
    sticky layer that avoids your immune system to help bacteria stick to you
  15. pili
    hair like projectons to attach bacteria to specific cells
  16. flagella
    one or more long projections for movemnt
  17. plasmid
    extra circle of dna that often has genes for resistance to drugs or antibiotics
  18. endospores
    dormant survival structurs in certain bacteria; can survive boiling, freezing, 1000's of years
  19. eukaryotic cells
    larger, more complex; have nucleaus and other organells, don't have a cell wall example: algi, fungi, plants animals
  20. organelles
    mebrane enclosed structure that perform specific functions
  21. plasma membrane
    selectively permeable, phospholipid bilayer
  22. cytosol
    the liquid inside the cell and the solutes dissolved in the liquid
  23. cytoplasm
    is just about anything in the cell that is not the nucleus
  24. nucleus
    directs the activities in the cell; the control center of the cell
  25. dna
    hereditary information on how to make eery protein the body will ever need; double helix
  26. nuclear envelpe
    surround the nucleus
  27. chromatin
    a diffuse mass of dna
  28. chromosome
    a condensed mass of dna; humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
  29. nucleolus
    site of rna manufacture inside the nuclues
  30. rna 
    copy of the instruction for one single protein that is needed now
  31. ribosomes
    the site of protein manufacture
  32. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    a passageway for large molecules
  33. rough er
    has ribosomes; handles protein type molecules
  34. smooth er
    no ribosomes; handles non-protein stuff like fatty acids, phospholipids, and steriods
  35. golgi body
    packing site for proteins and lipids
  36. lysosome
    site of digestive enzymes
  37. phagocytosis
    cell eating; lysosomes digesting outside material
  38. autolysis
    a cell intentionally releases lysosomes in order to destroy the entire cell
  39. autophagy
    a celll intentionally release lysosomes in order to destroy its old organelle
  40. tay sachs diesase
    person i missing one enzyme in the lysosome, ganglioside builds up in nerve cells, especially in the brain
  41. food vacuole
    holds food
  42. contractile vacuole
    used to pump water out of many protists
  43. central vacuole
    holds water for plant cells
  44. other vacuoles may hold
    pigments, toxins, proteins, or metabolic by products
  45. mitochondria
    where cellular energy is produced
  46. chloroplasts
    site of photosynthesis; only in plants and gree algae
  47. peroxisomes
    similar to lysosomes except they contain peroxidases, which breaks down peroxides
  48. cytoskeleton
    network of protein fibers tha give shpae to the cell
  49. microfilaments
    small protein filaments; used in muscle contractions and cell division
  50. microtubles
    larger filaments with a hole in them; used in chromosom movements during cell division, cilia, and flagella
  51. cilia
    many, short microtubles; paramecium
  52. flagella
    single long microtuble; sperm and some bacteria
  53. basal body
    anchors cilia and flagella to cell
  54. centrioles
    function in cell reproduction
  55. cell walls
    stiff coatings around outside of cell membranes fo bacteria, plants, fungi, and some protists
  56. plasmodesmata
    openings in the walls of adjacent plant cells
  57. mitosis
    division of chromosomes
  58. cytokinesis
    division of cytoplasm and other organelles
  59. chromatin
    diffuse mass of dna
  60. chromosomes 
    condensed dna
  61. humans have
    23 pairs of chromosome
  62. homologous chromosome
    different copies of the same chromosome
  63. interphase
    normal cell things; organelles and dna replicate
  64. sister chromatids
    identical copies of the same chromosome
  65. prophase
    chromosomes condense; nuclear envelpe dissolves
  66. metaphase
    sister chromatids line up in the middle
  67. anaphase
    old and new chromatid pairs start to pull apart
  68. telophase
    farther apart and cell starts to split dow middle to form 2 cells; nuclear envelpe reforms