Test 2 Lab Values

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aiwanski
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176319
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Test 2 Lab Values
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2012-12-16 21:15:06
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Test 2 Lab Values
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  1. Average life span of an erythrocyte (RBC)?
    120 Days
  2. Normal amount of erythrocytes (RBC) in the body?
    4-6 million
  3. Normal amount of hemoglobin range?
    12-18g
  4. Normal leukocyte range (WBC)?
    5,000-10,000
  5. 2 categories of leukocytes (WBCs)?
    • Granulocytes
    • Agranulocytes
  6. Two categories of leukocytes (WBC) are granulocytes and agranulocytes.  Granulocytes can be further divided into 3 parts?
    • Neutrophils (largest part of wbc count)
    • eosphils
    • basophils
  7. Two categories of leukocytes (WBC) are granulocytes and agranulocytes.  Agranulocytes can be further divided into 2?
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  8. A reduction in WBC count is known as?
    leukopenia
  9. Thromobocytes (platelets) normal lab value range?
    150,000-400,000
  10. Prothrombin (PT) range?
    11-12.5 sec
  11. Normal International Normalized Ratio (INR) is calculated by? 

    Average range?
    Patients PT/established standard PT

    0.7-1.8
  12. Normal range for bleeding time?
    1-9 min
  13. Normal hematocrit (HCT) range?
    37-52%
  14. Normal hemoglobin (HGB) range?
    12-18
  15. Normal potassium (K) range?
    3.5-4.5
  16. Normal Na range?
    135-145 mEq/L
  17. Normal Ca range?
    8.5-10.5 mg/dl
  18. Normal Magnesium (Mg) range?
    1.2-2.1 mEq/L
  19. AIDS window of exposure range?
    4-12 weeks
  20. Lithium takes ____ to _____ days to become therapeuitc in the body? 
    7-14 days
  21. Lithium.  300 mg-600mg is givem 2 or 3 times per day by mouth to reach a clear therapeutic result or lithium level of ____ to _____ mEq/L?
    0.8 to 1.4 mEq/L. 

    *(mait level: 0.4-1.3 mEq/L). 
  22. Lithium.  Greater than ________ mEq/L results in convulsions, oliguria, and death?
    2.5 mEq/L
  23. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOis) inhibit the enzyme monoamine oxidase, which normally breaks down neurotransmitters including serotonin and norepinephrine.  Dietrary restrictions: avoid foods/products that contain _________?  3 examples are ______,______,and _____?
    Thyramine.

    Examples: avocados, fermented bean curd, fermented soybean; soybean paste, figs, bananas in large amounts, fermented meats/smoked, liver (unless very fresh), fermented sausages: bologna, pepperoni, salami, dried or cured fish: fermented smoked or otherwise aged or spoiled.  Practicallly all cheeses.  Yeast extract.  Some imported beers, chianti wines.  IF THYRAMINE LEVELS INCREASE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS, AND EVENTUALLY CVA CAN OCCUR. 
  24. Tricyclic Antidepressants include 7?
    • Amitriptyline (Elavil)
    • Clomipramine (Anafranil)
    • Desipramine (Norpramin)
    • Doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan)
    • Imipramine (Tofranil)
    • Nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor)
    • Protriptyline (Vivactil)
  25. Side effects of tricyclic antidepressants include 7?
    • Dry Mouth
    • Constipation
    • Urinary Retention
    • Blurred Vision
    • Orthostatic Hypotension
    • Cardiac Toxicity
    • Sedation
  26. Side effects of traditional antipsychotics? See page 329-330
    • Dry Mouth
    • Urinary retention and hesitancy
    • Constipation
    • Blurred vision
    • Photosensitivity
    • Dry Eyes
    • Anticholinergic toxicity: dry mucous membranes, reduced or absent peristalsis, mydriasis, nonreactive pupils, hot, dry, red skin, hyperpyrexia without diaphoresis, tachycardia, agitation, unstable vital signs, worsening of psychotic symptoms, delirium, urinary retention, seizure, repetitive motor movements.
    • Pseudoparkinsonism
    • Acute dystonic reactions
    • Akathesia: motor inner-driven restlessness eg. tapping foot incessantly, rocking forward in a chair etc. 
    • Tardive dyskinesia
    • Agranulocytosis
    • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndronme:
  27. Side effects of atypical antipsychotics?
    Abilify, Clozaril, Zyprexa, Invega, Seroquel, Risperdal, Geodon
    • Angranulocytosis
    • Seizures
    • Weight Gain
    • Metabolic syndrome: weight gain, dyslipidemia, and altered glucose metabolism-- increases the risk of diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerotic heart disease. 
  28. Paraphrasing is?
    To clarify, the nurse might use paraphrasing, or restating in different (often fewer) words the basic content of a patient's message.  By prefacing statements with phrase such as: "I'm not sure I understand" or "In other words, you seem to be saying" Helps client form clearer picture.  Afterwords the nurse must confirm by asking "Was I correct in saying?"
  29. What is reflection?
    Reflection is a means of assisting people to better understand their own thoughts and feelings.  "What should I do about my husband's affair?"  what do you think you should do?" "My brother spends all of my money and then has the nerve to ask for more." "You feel angry when this happens?"
  30. Key features of Left Sided Heart Failure:
    • Left sided heart failure:
    • Decreased Cardiac Output:
    • Fatigue, weakness, oliguria during the day (nocturia at night), angina, confusion, restlessness, dizziness, tachycardia, palpitations, pallor, weak peripheral pulses, cool extremeties.

    • Pulmonary Congestion:
    • Hacking cough, worse at night, dyspnea/breathlessness, crackles or wheezes in lungs, frothy, pink-tinged sputum, tachypnea, s3/s4 summation gallop. 
  31. Right Sided Heart Failure Key Features:
    Right Sided Heart Failure:

    Systemic congestion:

    Jugular Vein Distention, Enlarged Liver and spleen, anorexia and nausea, dependent edema (legs and sacrum), distended abdomen, swollen hands and fingers, polyuria at night, weight gain, increased blood pressure (from excess volume) or decreased blood pressure (from failure). 
  32. AIDS Meds:

    Zidovudine 300 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg) 1 tab 2x daily is aka __________?
    Combivir
  33. AIDS Meds

    With ___________, the patient needs to avoid eating fatty foods.  The drug in combination with a high fat diet can cause pancreatitis.
    Lamivudine
  34. AIDS Meds

    When taking ________, teach the patient to take care when driving and avoid operating heavy machinery.  Monitor CBC, hepatic and renal function.  The drug suppresses bone marrow function and can be both renal and liver toxic. 
    Zitovudine (Retrovir)
  35. AIDS Meds

    When taking ___________, warn the patient about dizziness, insomnia, and nightmares while taking this drug.  Drug crosses blood-brain barrier and can induce CNS manifestations. 
    Efavirenz (sustiva)
  36. Aminosalicylates:  ASA + sulfonamide abx

              Direct contact, anti-inflammatory with
    minimal s/e: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

              Used in mild Crohn’s located in colon
    and mild  to moderate ulcerative colitis

              Can be used long-term

              Examples:  ?
    Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), Olsalazine(Dipentum)
  37. Crohns/UC
    Used
    in moderate to severe crohn’s and severe ulcerative colitis

              Short-term:  1-2 days Corticosteroids are used.  Some examples of corticosteroids are: 3?

    Side effects are: 9
    Prednisone, Prednisolone - systemic Hydrocortisone, Budesonide


    • Side effects: Fluid and electrolyte imbalance, osteoporosis, aseptic
    • necrosis, infection,      psychiatric disturbances, PUD, cataracts,
    • infection, hyperglycemia
  38. Immune Modifiers: potent
    immunosuppressant agents.  Used when pt
    cannot be weaned from steroids.  Slow
    onset of action (4months) Examples: 3?
    • Azathioprine
    • (Imuran),    Mercaptopurine (Purinethol),
    • Methotrexate (s/e: bone marrow depression)
  39. 2 antibiotics used is Crohns/uc?
    Metronidazole (Flagyl), Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  40. Monoclonal
    Crohns/UC

    Antibodies: __________ is  an inflammatory agent found in Crohn’s.  These meds bind with TNF which decreases
    inflammation and increases healing. Examples: 2?
     
    TNF(tumor necrosis factor)-alpha

    Natalizumab, Infliximab (Remicaide)
  41. FYI
    Crohns/UC


    Symptomatic
    Treatment:

    Antispasmodics-
    decrease vagal nerve stimulation and motility. 
    Containdicated in ileus and severe ulcerative colitis- can increase risk
    of mega colon. ex:  dicyclomine(Bentyl)
    and propantheline bromide(Pro-Banthine).

    Antidiarrheal
    - Decrease GI motility ex: loperimide (Immodium), diphenoxylate with atropine
    (Lomotil).

    Fat
    soluble vitamins
    • Symptomatic
    • Treatment:

    • Antispasmodics-
    • decrease vagal nerve stimulation and motility. 
    • Containdicated in ileus and severe ulcerative colitis- can increase risk
    • of mega colon. ex:  dicyclomine(Bentyl)
    • and propantheline bromide(Pro-Banthine).

    • Antidiarrheal
    • - Decrease GI motility ex: loperimide (Immodium), diphenoxylate with atropine
    • (Lomotil).

    • Fat
    • soluble vitamins
  42. Dysrhythmia

    Bradycardia (any rhythm below 60 bpm).  Treat if the client is symptomatic.  Medication (2)?  Electrical management 1?
    Atropine, Isoproterenol

    Pacemaker
  43. Dysrhythmia

    Atrial fibrilation, supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), or ventricular tachycardia with pulse.  Medication 3?  Electrical 1?
    Amiodarone, adenosine, and verapamil

    Syncronized cardioversion
  44. Dysrhythmia

    Ventricular tachycardia without pulse or ventricular fibrillation.  Medication 3?   Electrical 1>
    Amiodarone, lidocaine, epinephrine

    Defibrilation

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