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Average life span of an erythrocyte (RBC)?
Normal amount of erythrocytes (RBC) in the body?
Normal amount of hemoglobin range?
Normal leukocyte range (WBC)?
2 categories of leukocytes (WBCs)?
Two categories of leukocytes (WBC) are granulocytes and agranulocytes. Granulocytes can be further divided into 3 parts?
- Neutrophils (largest part of wbc count)
Two categories of leukocytes (WBC) are granulocytes and agranulocytes. Agranulocytes can be further divided into 2?
A reduction in WBC count is known as?
Thromobocytes (platelets) normal lab value range?
Prothrombin (PT) range?
Normal International Normalized Ratio (INR) is calculated by?
Patients PT/established standard PT
Normal range for bleeding time?
Normal hematocrit (HCT) range?
Normal hemoglobin (HGB) range?
Normal potassium (K) range?
Normal Na range?
Normal Ca range?
Normal Magnesium (Mg) range?
AIDS window of exposure range?
Lithium takes ____ to _____ days to become therapeuitc in the body?
Lithium. 300 mg-600mg is givem 2 or 3 times per day by mouth to reach a clear therapeutic result or lithium level of ____ to _____ mEq/L?
0.8 to 1.4 mEq/L.
*(mait level: 0.4-1.3 mEq/L).
Lithium. Greater than ________ mEq/L results in convulsions, oliguria, and death?
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOis) inhibit the enzyme monoamine oxidase, which normally breaks down neurotransmitters including serotonin and norepinephrine. Dietrary restrictions: avoid foods/products that contain _________? 3 examples are ______,______,and _____?
Examples: avocados, fermented bean curd, fermented soybean; soybean paste, figs, bananas in large amounts, fermented meats/smoked, liver (unless very fresh), fermented sausages: bologna, pepperoni, salami, dried or cured fish: fermented smoked or otherwise aged or spoiled. Practicallly all cheeses. Yeast extract. Some imported beers, chianti wines. IF THYRAMINE LEVELS INCREASE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS, AND EVENTUALLY CVA CAN OCCUR.
Tricyclic Antidepressants include 7?
- Amitriptyline (Elavil)
- Clomipramine (Anafranil)
- Desipramine (Norpramin)
- Doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan)
- Imipramine (Tofranil)
- Nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor)
- Protriptyline (Vivactil)
Side effects of tricyclic antidepressants include 7?
- Dry Mouth
- Urinary Retention
- Blurred Vision
- Orthostatic Hypotension
- Cardiac Toxicity
Side effects of traditional antipsychotics? See page 329-330
- Dry Mouth
- Urinary retention and hesitancy
- Blurred vision
- Dry Eyes
- Anticholinergic toxicity: dry mucous membranes, reduced or absent peristalsis, mydriasis, nonreactive pupils, hot, dry, red skin, hyperpyrexia without diaphoresis, tachycardia, agitation, unstable vital signs, worsening of psychotic symptoms, delirium, urinary retention, seizure, repetitive motor movements.
- Acute dystonic reactions
- Akathesia: motor inner-driven restlessness eg. tapping foot incessantly, rocking forward in a chair etc.
- Tardive dyskinesia
- Neuroleptic Malignant Syndronme:
Side effects of atypical antipsychotics?
Abilify, Clozaril, Zyprexa, Invega, Seroquel, Risperdal, Geodon
- Weight Gain
- Metabolic syndrome: weight gain, dyslipidemia, and altered glucose metabolism-- increases the risk of diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerotic heart disease.
To clarify, the nurse might use paraphrasing, or restating in different (often fewer) words the basic content of a patient's message. By prefacing statements with phrase such as: "I'm not sure I understand" or "In other words, you seem to be saying" Helps client form clearer picture. Afterwords the nurse must confirm by asking "Was I correct in saying?"
What is reflection?
Reflection is a means of assisting people to better understand their own thoughts and feelings. "What should I do about my husband's affair?" what do you think you should do?" "My brother spends all of my money and then has the nerve to ask for more." "You feel angry when this happens?"
Key features of Left Sided Heart Failure:
- Left sided heart failure:
- Decreased Cardiac Output:
- Fatigue, weakness, oliguria during the day (nocturia at night), angina, confusion, restlessness, dizziness, tachycardia, palpitations, pallor, weak peripheral pulses, cool extremeties.
- Pulmonary Congestion:
- Hacking cough, worse at night, dyspnea/breathlessness, crackles or wheezes in lungs, frothy, pink-tinged sputum, tachypnea, s3/s4 summation gallop.
Right Sided Heart Failure Key Features:
Right Sided Heart Failure:
Jugular Vein Distention, Enlarged Liver and spleen, anorexia and nausea, dependent edema (legs and sacrum), distended abdomen, swollen hands and fingers, polyuria at night, weight gain, increased blood pressure (from excess volume) or decreased blood pressure (from failure).
Zidovudine 300 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg) 1 tab 2x daily is aka __________?
With ___________, the patient needs to avoid eating fatty foods. The drug in combination with a high fat diet can cause pancreatitis.
When taking ________, teach the patient to take care when driving and avoid operating heavy machinery. Monitor CBC, hepatic and renal function. The drug suppresses bone marrow function and can be both renal and liver toxic.
When taking ___________, warn the patient about dizziness, insomnia, and nightmares while taking this drug. Drug crosses blood-brain barrier and can induce CNS manifestations.
Aminosalicylates: ASA + sulfonamide abx
Direct contact, anti-inflammatory with
minimal s/e: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Used in mild Crohn’s located in colon
and mild to moderate ulcerative colitis
Can be used long-term
Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), Olsalazine(Dipentum)
in moderate to severe crohn’s and severe ulcerative colitis
Short-term: 1-2 days Corticosteroids are used. Some examples of corticosteroids are: 3?
Side effects are: 9
Prednisone, Prednisolone - systemic Hydrocortisone, Budesonide
- Side effects: Fluid and electrolyte imbalance, osteoporosis, aseptic
- necrosis, infection, psychiatric disturbances, PUD, cataracts,
- infection, hyperglycemia
Immune Modifiers: potent
immunosuppressant agents. Used when pt
cannot be weaned from steroids. Slow
onset of action (4months) Examples: 3?
- (Imuran), Mercaptopurine (Purinethol),
- Methotrexate (s/e: bone marrow depression)
2 antibiotics used is Crohns/uc?
Metronidazole (Flagyl), Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
Antibodies: __________ is an inflammatory agent found in Crohn’s. These meds bind with TNF which decreases
inflammation and increases healing. Examples: 2?
TNF(tumor necrosis factor)-alpha
Natalizumab, Infliximab (Remicaide)
decrease vagal nerve stimulation and motility.
Containdicated in ileus and severe ulcerative colitis- can increase risk
of mega colon. ex: dicyclomine(Bentyl)
and propantheline bromide(Pro-Banthine).
- Decrease GI motility ex: loperimide (Immodium), diphenoxylate with atropine
- decrease vagal nerve stimulation and motility.
- Containdicated in ileus and severe ulcerative colitis- can increase risk
- of mega colon. ex: dicyclomine(Bentyl)
- and propantheline bromide(Pro-Banthine).
- - Decrease GI motility ex: loperimide (Immodium), diphenoxylate with atropine
Bradycardia (any rhythm below 60 bpm). Treat if the client is symptomatic. Medication (2)? Electrical management 1?
Atrial fibrilation, supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), or ventricular tachycardia with pulse. Medication 3? Electrical 1?
Amiodarone, adenosine, and verapamil
Ventricular tachycardia without pulse or ventricular fibrillation. Medication 3? Electrical 1>
Amiodarone, lidocaine, epinephrine