Biology Vocab: Skeletal System, Chapters 5,6,7

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  1. Benign Tumor
    doesn't affect surrounding tissues
  2. Malignant Tumor
    invades surrounding tissues; cancerous
  3. Metastasis
    cells break away from a malignant tumor and start a new cancer at another location
  4. Interphase
    • phase one of mitosis
    • time between divisions
    • DNA is copies here
  5. Prophase
    • phase two of mitosis
    • chromosomes condense (are visible)
    • sister chromatids pair up
    • nuclear membrane disappears
  6. Metaphase
    • phase three of mistosis
    • paired chromatids line up in the middle of cell
  7. Anaphase
    • phase four of mitosis
    • chromatids are pulled into two daugher cells (v-shaped)
  8. Telophase
    • phase five of mitosis
    • cells start to separate
    • nuclear membrane reforms
  9. G1 Checkpoint
    are growth factors present?
  10. G2 Checkpoint
    has DNA replicated properly?
  11. Metaphase Checkpoint
    have all chromosomes attached properly to microtubules?
  12. Mutation
    a change in the sequence of DNA
  13. Crossing Over
    exchange of equivalent portions of chromosomes between members of a homologous pair
  14. Random Assignment
    the way in which different pairs of chrmomsomes allign and get separated during meiosis 1 is random
  15. Phenotype
    physical traits of an individual
  16. Genotype
    description of the alleles for a particular gene in an individual
  17. Homozygous (-ote)
    • Purebred
    • both alleles for a gene are identical
  18. Heterozygous (-ote)
    • Hybrid
    • the gene has two different alleles
  19. Recessive
    the phenotype of an allele is seen only when homozygous
  20. Dominant
    the phenotype is seen when homozygous or heterozygous
  21. Osteoblasts
    deposit mineral salts and collagenous fibers (make bones)
  22. Osteocytes
    maintains bone tissue (are bone)
  23. Osteoclasts
    break down bone tissue (destroy bone)
  24. Diaphysis
    shaft of a long bone
  25. Epiphysis
    ends of long bones
  26. Metaphysis
    the area between the diaphysis and the epiphysis contains the epiphyseal plate
  27. Articular Cartilage
    • hyaline cartilage
    • covers the ends of moveable joints
  28. Periosteum
    outer covering of bone
  29. Medullary
    • cavity or cannal
    • houses marrow
  30. Endosteum
    inner lining of medullary cavity
  31. Process
    any projection from the surface of a bone
  32. Condyle
    • "knuckle"
    • a large rounded prominence on a bone
  33. Trochanter
    a large blunt process found only on the lateral side of the femur
  34. Tubercle
    a small rounded process
  35. Tuberosity
    an elecated, rounded, usually roughened area of a bone
  36. Foramen
    an opening or hole ina bone
  37. Fossa
    a depression or groove on a bone
  38. Meatus
    a tube like passageway running within a bone
  39. Sinus
    a space within a bone lined with a mucus membrane that reduces the weight of a bone
  40. Long Bones
    have a distinct diaphysis (shaft)
  41. Short Bones
    somewhat cube-shaped bones
  42. Flat Bones
    protect organs
  43. Irregular Bones
    the "other" category
  44. Sesamoid Bones
    small bones situated in tendones when considerable pressure develops
  45. Axial Skeleton
    bones that lie along the long axis of the body
  46. Appendicular Skeleton
    bones of the extremities
  47. Cervical Vertebrae

  48. Thoracic Vertebrae

    attach to ribs
  49. Lumbar Vertebrae

    lower back
  50. Sacrum Vertebrae

    pelvic bones
  51. Coccyx Vertebrae

    tail bone
  52. Scoliosis
    • lateral curvature of the spine
    • usually in thoracic and lumbar region
  53. Kyphosis
    • hunchback/humpback
    • exaggeration of thoracic curvature
  54. Lordosis
    • swayback (sprinters butt)
    • exaggeration of lumbar curvature
  55. Fibrous Joints
    held together by fibrous connective tissue
  56. Cartilaginous Joints
    held together by cartilage
  57. Synovial Joints
    joint enclosed within a synovial or joint capsule
  58. Tendons
    • connect muscle to bones
    • a band or cord of dense fibrous connective tissue extending from a muscle to a bone for attachment
  59. Ligaments
    • connects bone to bone
    • a band or cord of dense fibrous connective tissue extending from bone to bone to provide a joint with structural stability
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Biology Vocab: Skeletal System, Chapters 5,6,7
2012-10-28 18:56:55
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