Capsule(covers cell wall, sticky (polysaccharides or proteins; helps cells stick to surface)
hair like appendages (fimbriae, pili)
Specialized Membranes (part of plasma membrane i.e. respiratory)
Genomic Information (less DNA, circular chromosomes, in nucleoid region)
What is Taxis? What are the different kinds?
Movement to or away from a stimulus
Positive (to stimulus)
Negative (away from stimulus)
*over half of all Pokaryotes intentionally move
What are common characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells?
larger, true nucleus
membrane bound organelles
What differentiates animal cells from plant cells?
Animal Cells-lysosome, centrosome, no cell wall
Plant Cells-cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplast
What organelles are used for genetic control (Eukaryotic Cells)?
store and usage of genetic information (nucleus and ribosomes)-DNA replication and gene expression
The nucleus stores DNA, break down DNA to other components.
*Mitotic chromosome in X shape
*Usual form of chromosome in jumbled mess within nucleus
The Nuclear Envelope encloses the nucleus, what is it made of? Whats its purpose?
Consists of 4 phospholipid bilayers (double membrane)
Nuclear Pores-perferations in the envelope, holes line by proteins-regulate entry/exit
What is the nuclear lamina?
Nuclear Laminia-support/structure for the nucleus, lines nuclear side of envelope Nucleolus-rRNA synthesis, ribosomal subunit assembly, can have more than 1 depending upon the cells numbers of proteins made
What is a Ribosome made of?
*NOT AN ORGANELLE
Consist of rRNA and proteins
2 subunits (1 large, 1 small) and come together via mRNA (protein synthesis)
Decipher between free and bound ribosomes.
Free Ribosomes-in cytosol, make cytosolic proteins and proteins for non endomembrane system
Bound Ribosomes-attached to ER or nuclear envelope ("cytostolic face"), makes proteins for secreation, mebranes and endomembrane organelles
*Free becomes bound by attaching to ER
What is the size difference between Ribosomes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Ribosomes-SMALLER 70S
Eukaryotic Ribosomes0BIGGER 80S
What is the Endomembrane System?
The production, distribution and breakdown of biomolecules; physically continous or connected by vesicles, different in structure and function, ER helps for it (phospholipids)
What does ER consist of?
What is the difference between Smooth ER and Rough ER?
Smooth- no ribosomes, synthesis of lipids and steroids, calsium storage, detoxification, carb metabolism
Rough-ribosomes, protein synthesis, glycoprotein synthesis, membrane production
What is the Golgi Apparatus?
cell's receiving and shipping center, Modify and stores prodcuts, makes biomolecules
What is the Golgi Apparatus made of?
Cisternae-stacked flattened membrous sacs
What is the Cis and Trans of the Golgi Apparatus?
Trans-end-away from the ER, packed to another place
What are the products of the Golgi Apparatus?
What do lysosomes do?
Digestive compartments,used to break down old organelles to usable components (phagocytosis-cell eats, autophagy-self eat)
*Only in animals
What is the structure of lysosomes?
Lumen-hydrolytic enzymes (work at acidic pH *Built in bound ribosomes)
What is the most direct source of phospholipids fround in the lysosome membrane?
What are Vacuoles?
membrane bound compartments with diverse funtions
larger vesicle with more specialization
Metabolic functions-food, contractile (carries water), central (plants)-storage i.e. water, disposal, has pigments, can hold toxins-form of protextion,
What organelle carries out respiration for nearly all eukaryotes?
What are the components of the mitochondria?
*More Inner membranes than outter membranes
2 compartments:intermemrane space, mitochondiral matrix-chemical reactions, ribosomes-FREE, and DNA
What prokaryotic characeristics are in mitochondria?
What is the endosymbiotic theory? What organelles does it address?
Mitochondria and Chloroplast
believed to be free living bacteria and over time was engulfed by a cell and survived
What is the purpose of chloroplasts?
place for photosynthesis in plant cells
What are cholorplasts made of?
Chlorophyll-captures light, pigmented
Thylakoid membrane-made of Chlorophyll that are stacked=grana
stroma-outside of the thylakoid membrane
What is the purpose of the cytoskeleton?
What is the cytoskeleton made of?
network of protein fibers extending thoughout the cytoplasm
Intermediate Filaments (protein fibers)
What are microtubules?
thick hollow tubes made of tubulin
2 centrioles and matrix-by nucleus
cells ahpe, vesicle/organelle movement-acts as track for motor proteins, cel division (mitosis)
What are differences/similarities between cilia and flagella