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2012-10-10 12:24:52
301C Wandelt Ch6 Ch7

Introduction to Metabolism, Introduction to Cells
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  1. What is a chemical reaction?
    Making and breaking of bonds
  2. What is metabolism
    The sum totaly of all chemical reactions ina biological cell that are aften organized into metabolic pathways
  3. Whats the difference between catabolic and
    anabolic pathways/reactions? Give an example of each.
    • Catabolic-Breakdown (complex to simple) hydrolysis
    •  Anabolic-Build Up (simple to complex) proteins, DNA
  4. Energy is the capacity to cause change, what
    is kinetic and potential energy?
    • Kinetic-Energy of motion, heat
    •  Potential- energy of location, stored energy, chemical energy
  5. Energy transform states that energy can be
    transfered from one form to another, what are the 2 laws of thermodynamics?
    • 1.Conservation of Energy-Energy cannot be created nor destroyed
    • transformation increases the disorder in the universe (entropy-heat emmission- energy cant be recycled because of heat loss)
  6. What is Free Energy Change or DELTA G?
    energy available to do work
  7. What des positive DELTA G mean? negative?
    • Positive-not sponaneous-needs input to react
    • Negative-spontaneous- can react on its own
  8. Differentiate between Exergonic and Endergonic reactions
    • Exergonic-exit, Negative DELTA G, spontaneous-catabolic, anabolic
    • Endergonic-enter, Positive DELTA G, not spontaneous-absorb
  9. What is Energy Coupling
    Using an exergonix process to drive and endergonic process (i.e.building DNA, breaking down ATP)
  10. What are the componenets of ATP, a ribonucleotide?
    adenine, ribose, phosphate groups
  11. What is phosphorylation?
    The transfer of a phosphate group to anoterh molecule; generates a reative phsophoylated intermediate; can also change the shape of a molecule
  12. ATP contains 7.3 kcals/mol of energy, what
    does ATP drive?
    • Transport Work
    •  Mechanical Work-helps motorize proteins
  13. What are the stages of the ATP Cycle?
    •  The addition of water releases a phosphate group
    • (which is inorganic when released because it doesn't have a carbon) and energy (heat)
  14. What are enzymes
    specific catalyst without eing consumed
  15. Define Activiation Energy Barrier (Ea)?
    • The intial amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction; must overcome a reaction to proceed; determines the rate of reaction; the higher the barrier the slower the reaction
  16. How do Enzymes play a role in activation energy 
    enzymes lower activation energy *DOES NOT affect DELTA G/Free Energy
  17. Describe enzymes in terms of active sites and substrates
    •  Enzymes are proteins which means they have a
    • specific shape-> compatible fit between active site(Region on an exyme where substrate bonds) and substrate (reactant)
  18. What is a polar active site?
    A charged substrate=H Bonds
  19. What is induced fit?
    The binding of the substrate causes a change in the shape
  20. How is Activation Energy lowered by an enzyme?
    • Orient substrates (Creates mold)
    • Strain substrate bonds (induced fit)
    • Participate in reaction (R Groups)
  21. What factors affect anzyme activity?
    • Fucntional partners-enzymes unable to do reactio on own
    • Environmental factors-temperature and pH
  22. How does temperature and pH effect enzyme activity?
    • Temperature-denaturizes proteins
    •  pH-changes shape when not in optimal conditions
    • (because at physiological state shapes are charged)
  23. How does on regulate enzyme activity?
    Through amount (gene expression) or activity
  24. What are inhibitors?Decipher between irrecersible and reversible.
    • Inhibitors-chemicals that selectively inhibit the activity of enzymes
    •  Irreversible-covalent bonds Reversible-weaker bonds
  25. Decipher between ompetitive and non competitive inhibition.
    • Competitive-fills in the active site not letting the substrate in 
    • NonCompetitive- different location from substrate-changes active site shape
  26. What is allosteric regulation?
    regulatory inhibition changing where changing the shape of the active site either helps or does (inhibits)
  27. What is feedback inhibition?
    control processes to help maintain processes
  28. What is the cell theory?
    • All living organisms are made of cells
    • Strucual and Functional unit of all living organisms
    • All cells come from preexisting cells
  29. What are the shared characteristics between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
    • Plasma Membrane (carbs, phospholipids, proteins, steroids)
    • Cytosol (semifluid aqueous solution)
    • Cytoplasm (includes cytosol but also has organelles and suspended particles)
    • DNA (organized into 1 or more chromosomes)
    • Ribosomes (peptide bonds)
    • Must obtain energy and raw materials (nutrients)
    • Small 
  30. How does metabolism set the limit on the size of cells?
    • Lower limits set by basic requirements for life
    • upper limit set by ratio Surface Area:Volume Or Plasma Membrane:Cytoplasm
    • *The higher the volume, the greater the need to rid waste and get nutrients
  31. Put the following Domains into the catagory of Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic:Bacteria, Eukarya, Archae
    • Prokaryotic- Bacteria, Archae
    • Eukaryotic-Eukarya
  32. There are common characteristics between Prokaryotes? Specify purposes. *Remember they are not in all
    • Cell Wall (maintains shape, physical protection, prevents bursting)
    • Capsule(covers cell wall, sticky (polysaccharides or proteins; helps cells stick to surface)
    • hair like appendages (fimbriae, pili)
    • Lack compartmentalization
    • Specialized Membranes (part of plasma membrane i.e. respiratory)
    • Genomic Information (less DNA, circular chromosomes, in nucleoid region)
  33. What is Taxis? What are the different kinds?
    • Movement to or away from a stimulus
    • Positive (to stimulus)
    • Negative (away from stimulus)
    • *over half of all Pokaryotes intentionally move

    • Phototaxi
    • Chemotaxis
  34. What are common characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells?
    • larger, true nucleus
    • membrane bound organelles
    • elaborate cytoskeleton
  35. What differentiates animal cells from plant cells?
    • Animal Cells-lysosome, centrosome, no cell wall
    • Plant Cells-cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplast
  36. What organelles are used for genetic control (Eukaryotic Cells)?
    store and usage of genetic information (nucleus and ribosomes)-DNA replication and gene expression  
  37. The nucleus stores DNA, break down DNA to other components.
    • DNA->chromosomes->chromatin (DNA+Proteins)
    • *Mitotic chromosome in X shape
    • *Usual form of chromosome in jumbled mess within nucleus
  38. The Nuclear Envelope encloses the nucleus, what is it made of? Whats its purpose?
    • Consists of 4 phospholipid bilayers (double membrane) 
    • Nuclear Pores-perferations in the envelope, holes line by proteins-regulate entry/exit
  39. What is the nuclear lamina?
    Nuclear Laminia-support/structure for the nucleus, lines nuclear side of envelope Nucleolus-rRNA synthesis, ribosomal subunit assembly, can have more than 1 depending upon the cells numbers of proteins made
  40. What is a Ribosome made of?
    • Consist of rRNA and proteins
    • 2 subunits (1 large, 1 small) and come together via mRNA (protein synthesis)
  41. Decipher between free and bound ribosomes.
    • Free Ribosomes-in cytosol, make cytosolic proteins and proteins for non endomembrane system
    • Bound Ribosomes-attached to ER or nuclear envelope ("cytostolic face"), makes proteins for secreation, mebranes and endomembrane organelles 

    *Free becomes bound by attaching to ER 
  42. What is the size difference between Ribosomes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • Prokaryotic Ribosomes-SMALLER 70S
    • Eukaryotic Ribosomes0BIGGER 80S
  43. What is the Endomembrane System?
    The production, distribution and breakdown of biomolecules; physically continous or connected by vesicles, different in structure and function, ER helps for it (phospholipids)
  44. What does ER consist of?
    • Cisternae
    • Lumen
  45. What is the difference between Smooth ER and Rough ER?
    • Smooth- no ribosomes, synthesis of lipids and steroids, calsium storage, detoxification, carb metabolism
    • Rough-ribosomes, protein synthesis, glycoprotein synthesis, membrane production
  46. What is the Golgi Apparatus?
    cell's receiving and shipping center, Modify and stores prodcuts, makes biomolecules
  47. What is the Golgi Apparatus made of?
    • Cisternae-stacked flattened membrous sacs
    • Polar
  48. What is the Cis and Trans of the Golgi Apparatus?
    • Cis-receiving end
    • Trans-end-away from the ER, packed to another place
  49. What are the products of the Golgi Apparatus?
    • Lysosomes
    • Vacuoles
  50. What do lysosomes do?
    • Digestive compartments,used to break down old organelles to usable components (phagocytosis-cell eats, autophagy-self eat)
    • *Only in animals
  51. What is the structure of lysosomes?
    • Membranous Sac
    • Phospholipi Bilayer
    • Lumen-hydrolytic enzymes (work at acidic pH *Built in bound ribosomes)
  52. What is the most direct source of phospholipids fround in the lysosome membrane?
    Golgi Apparatus
  53. What are Vacuoles?
    • membrane bound compartments with diverse funtions
    • larger vesicle with more specialization
    • Metabolic functions-food, contractile (carries water), central (plants)-storage i.e. water, disposal, has pigments, can hold toxins-form of protextion, 
  54. What organelle carries out respiration for nearly all eukaryotes?
  55. What are the components of the mitochondria?
    • Outer-Smooth
    • Inner-cristae-surface area
    • *More Inner membranes than outter membranes
    • 2 compartments:intermemrane space, mitochondiral matrix-chemical reactions, ribosomes-FREE, and DNA
  56. What prokaryotic characeristics are in mitochondria?
    • Ribosomes-70S->prokaryotic
    • DNA->Circular Chromosomes
  57. What is the endosymbiotic theory? What organelles does it address?
    • Mitochondria and Chloroplast
    • believed to be free living bacteria and over time was engulfed by a cell and survived
  58. What is the purpose of chloroplasts?
    place for photosynthesis in plant cells
  59. What are cholorplasts made of?
    • Chlorophyll-captures light, pigmented
    • Thylakoid membrane-made of Chlorophyll that are stacked=grana
    • intermembrane space-compartment
    • stroma-outside of the thylakoid membrane
    • Thylakoid space
    • DNA-circular
    • Ribosomes-70S-FREE
  60. What is the purpose of the cytoskeleton?
    • support
    • movement
    • regulation
  61. What is the cytoskeleton made of?
    • network of protein fibers extending thoughout the cytoplasm
    • Microtubules
    • Microfilaments
    • Intermediate Filaments (protein fibers)
  62. What are microtubules?
    • thick hollow tubes made of tubulin
    • 2 centrioles and matrix-by nucleus
    • cells ahpe, vesicle/organelle movement-acts as track for motor proteins, cel division (mitosis)
  63. What are differences/similarities between cilia and flagella
    • Similar:same diameter, 9+2 pattery (9 microtubule doublet, 2 dingle microtubules; crosslinking proteins, motor proteins
    • flagella-longer cilia-shorter
    • flagella-1 or 2 cilia-many
    • flagella-swim,wavelike cilia-oar
  64. Centrosome are only in BLANK cells
    • animal 
    • *Think mitosis
  65. What organelles are part of the Endo Membrane System?
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • ER
    • Lysosomes
    • Vacuoles
    • Nuclear Envelope
    • *Secrete proteins
    • *Plasma Membrane
  66. What organelles are NOT in the EndoMembrane System?
    • Mitochondria
    • Chloroplast
    • Peroxisomes
    • Nucleus
    • *Cytosol
  67. What kind of ribosomes are EMS and nonEMS built on?
    • Bound Ribosome-EMS
    • Free Ribosomes-nonEMS
  68. What are microfilament's composition and function?
    • Composition:thin, solid walls made of action, twisted double chain that are network or linear
    • Function: helps determine cell shape (right under membrane), cell division (cytokenisis), muscle cell contraction, cell crawling
  69. Intermediate filaments are the strongest and longest lasting of the cytoskeleton proteins, what functions does it serve?
    • support cell shape
    • fix organelles in place
    • support organelle shape/structure
  70. What are extracellular components and connections?
    strong fibers in a matrix whether solid or liquid
  71. What are some characteristics of a Plant's cell wall?
    • protection
    • strenth
    • maintainence of shape (rigid)
  72. What are the structures of plant cell walls?
    • thicker than plasma membrane
    • cellulose microfibrils embedded in a polysaccharide and protein matrix
    • Thin primary wall-furthest away from membrane
    • Secondary wall-thicker and stronger, put in place when cell "matures"
    • Middle Lamella-adhession to plant cells via sticky carbs (outside of cell wall)
  73. What functions does the ECM of Extracellular Matrix serve?
    • support
    • adhesion
    • movement
    • regulation of cell behavior
    • connects to cells via fibronectina nd integrins
  74. What is the structure of Extracellular Matrix?
    glycoprotein (few sugars with more proteins) in a matrix of protyoglycans (more sugar with few proteins) and water
  75. What purpose do Intracellular Junctions serve?
    • Allows direct contacct between cells
    • adhesion
    • cell communication
  76. What is plasmodesmota?
    • Cytoplasmic channels linked by plasma membranes between plant cells
    • not highly regulated
    • adhesion due to middle lamella 
  77. what are tight junctions?
    • Pressing together of membranes between two neighboring cells
    • highly regulated
    • forms seal
  78. What are desmosomes?
    • Fasten cells together, connects cytoskeleton of neighbor through intermediate fiaments
    • does not form barrier
    • ex.heart cells dont fall apart when beating
  79. What are gap junctions?
    • protein  linked channel between adjacent cells (creates pores)
    • importnat in sending electric signals 
  80. What is keratin?
    provides dead skin cells with strength
  81. What do lamins help build?
    nuclear lamina
  82. What is the fuild mosaic model?
    phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins
  83. How are lipids brought together in the phospholipid bilayer?
    weak Vander Waal interactions
  84. What kind of movement can the fluid mosaic model posses?
    • side to side
    • flip flop

  85. What is fluidity dependent upon for the mosaic model?
    • temperature (hotter=more fluid)
    • phospholipid tail length and saturation 
    • cholesterol-only in animal cells- decrease fluidity by restricting it
  86. How do you make an animal cell's membrane more fluid?
    • cis unsaturated fatty acid
    • short fatty acid chains (because there are fewer interactions between neighbors) 
  87. The mosaic in the fluid mosaic model are membrane proteins, what purpose do they serve?
    • transport
    • enzymes (catabolic)
    • communication (receptors)
    • cell cell recognition
    • atachment