B Cert.txt

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B Cert.txt
2012-10-08 20:33:50
Gliding Certificate

Gliding B certificate
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  1. A glider wing always stalls at the same ____?
    Angle of attack.
  2. What is lateral damping?
    The tendency of a wing to resist movement in roll, caused by the increased angle of attack (and thus increased lift) on the downward wing.
  3. What kind of stability does a glider have in the yawing plane?
    Positive stability. The glider tends to return to its original heading when the rudder pedals are deflected then released.
  4. Define wing loading.
    Glider weight divided by wing area.
  5. What is meant by 'laminar flow'?
    A smooth, streamlined flow of air, resulting in low drag around a glider wing, as distinct from a turbulent, high drag flow.
  6. What happened to the rate of descent in a turn?
    It increases, because the lift is divided into two components, one acting upwards to balance out the weight, and the other acting inwards to provide the turning (centripetal) force.
  7. What is meant by a 'speed limiting' airbrake?
    An airbrake which will not allow the glider to exceed its maximum permitted speed (Vne). Most modern airbrake systems will limit the speed to Vne in a 30 degree dive, but no steeper.
  8. Define 'Aspect Ratio'
    Wingspan divided by chord.
  9. What is the purpose of the short length of wool or string sometimes attached to glider canopies?
    Usually known as a 'yaw-string' it is more accurately described as an airflow direction indicator. Generally used to detect slip or skid in turns.
  10. What effect do raindrops have on the wings of a high performance glider?
    They partly destroy the laminar flow of air past the wing, resulting in an increase in stalling speed and an increase in the rate of sink.
  11. What action does the pilot take to compensate for raindrops on the wings of a high performance glider?
    The pilot should increase speed by 5 to 10 knots to compensate and should plan on a much higher sink rate than normal.
  12. How does profile drag vary?
    As the square of the airspeed. Twice the airspeed, four times the profile drag, three times the airspeed, nine times the drag etc.
  13. What causes pre-stall buffet?
    The turbulent airflow from the breakdown in flow over the top of the wing striking the tail.
  14. What is the danger in banking too steeply near the ground in a strong wind?
    The top wing is in an airmass of different speed to the bottom wing (wind gradient). At low level, turning into a strong wind causes the glider to overbank, vice versa if turning downwind. The effect may be beyond the pilot's ability to prevent it occurring.
  15. What is a 'stabilised approach'?
    A glider going in the required direction at a constant airspeed and a constant rate of descent is said to be on a stabilised approach. The best landings result from such approaches.
  16. The longer a glider has been spinning, the longer it might take for recovery action to be effective. True or false?
    True, but it will only recover if the correct recovery action has been taken and the glider is within its CG limits.
  17. What is the 'break off point'?
    The point at which upper-air exercises are terminated and full commitment is made to the circuit, approach and landing.
  18. What is the recommended minimum height to clear an obstacle on a final approach?
    50 feet, or about 1 wingspan.
  19. Who is entitled to give a 'take up slack' signal?
    Only the pilot or someone definitely known to have been delegated this responsibility by the pilot.
  20. Who has priority, a glider taking off or a powered aircraft landing?
    Any aircraft landing has priority over any aircraft taking off.
  21. To whom must a gliding club report an accident?
    The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation (BASI) on the Australia-wide number 008 011034 and the RTO/Ops. The accident must be reported immediately.
  22. Should you fly a glider if you have given blood the day before?
    No. The recommended recovery period is 24 hours.
  23. By what height above the ground must all stalling, spinning and aerobatics be completed?
    1000 feet.
  24. What action do you take if you abandon a take off, pull the release twice but know or suspect that the cable or towrope has become entangled in the wheel or skid?
    Shout 'STOP' (very loudly), open airbrakes fully and hold stick fully forward. If possible, apply wheel brake.
  25. What does a rudder waggle on aerotow mean?
    Airbrakes or spoilers or tail chute extended. Check as appropriate.
  26. Above what altitude must oxygen be carried and used?
    Above 10,000ft amsl.
  27. What action do you take if you have mishandled the landing flare and the glider is starting to gain height?
    Close airbrakes, stop the backward movement of the stick to prevent the glider ballooning any higher. If the balloon is a really bad one (and momentary) forward movement may be required, but exercise great care with this. Carry out the landing further down the field.
  28. Assuming that you had the choice (ie airfield procedures do not take precedence), on which side of the strip would you do a circuit in a strong crosswind?
    On the downwind side.
  29. Where should the pilot's left hand be during every takeoff?
    Near the cable release.
  30. Prior to every takeoff, what clearance must be obtained by the pilot?
    "All clear above and behind"
  31. When you join the circuit, you realise that you are too high and the angle to the strip is too steep. What action do you take?
    Move out straightaway, then resume parallel track with strip further out. Airbrakes may be used if a gross error has been made, but beware of gliders underneath in the circuit joining area.
  32. What aircraft document should be checked before flight and what information should be sought from it?
    Maintenance Release (GFA form 1). Check expiry date of MR, check minor and major defect pages and check that the Daily Inspection has been signed for.
  33. Where should the pilot look to find the glider's minimum and maximum weak-link strengths?
    On a placard in the cockpit.
  34. What action should the pilot take in the event of overstressing or overspeeding a glider in flight?
    Do not allow to fly until inspected by a qualified person, Seek advice of authorised inspector. If none available, leave matters in the hands of the Duty Instructor. DO NOT NEGLECT TO REPORT IT TO SOMEONE.
  35. What is meant by "manoeuvre speed" (Va)?
    Manoeuvre speed (Va) is the speed above which full control deflection is not permitted. It is imposed to protect the structure. Over Va, only one third deflection is permitted on the ailerons and rudder, and the use of the elevator is limited to the extent required to keep the glider within its permitted "G" loadings.
  36. what immediate action should the pilot take if flutter is encountered in moderate to high speed flight?
    Slow down
  37. what action shopuld the pilot take after landing if flutter is encountered in moderate to high speed flight?
    Ground the glider and report the incident.
  38. When checking a back release, at approximately what downward angle should the cable automatically back-release?
    About right angles to the fuselage. The important thing is that the cable does not have to be pulled backwards to actuate the back-release, If it needs such an extreme angle to make it work, there may be something wrong with it.
  39. What is 'Vne'? Is it the same at all altitudes?
    "Velocity Never Exceed" , the maximum permitted speed of the glider in smooth air. It reduces with height because of reducing air density with height. Consult glider flight manual for details.
  40. Why must a glider never be pulled forward or backward by its wingtips?
    It puts too much strain on the wing root fittings because of the long leverage.
  41. Every glider has a maximum and minimum pilot weight. Where can this information be found?
    On the cockpit placard.
  42. Under what circumstances can a pilot lighter than the permissible minimum pilot weight fly the glider?
    Only when the required ballast is carried in accordance with the placard, and then only if the ballast is capable of being properly secured.
  43. Why is a weak link fitted onto a cable or towrope?
    To protect the glider structure in the event of a launch overstress.
  44. What is meant by the 'manoeuvring envelope'?
    The envelope of speeds and G loadings within which it is safe to fly the glider and outside of which damage or failure of the structure may occur.
  45. What kind of inspection must be carried out on a glider after it has been rigged?
    A Daily Inspection.
  46. What is a Form 2 inspection?
    The Annual Inspection for the revalidation of the gliders' certificate of airworthiness.
  47. From an airworthiness point of view, when must aerobatics not be performed?
    In rough air.