UTSD Nutrition Final.txt

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UTSD Nutrition Final.txt
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Final Exam Vitamins Notes
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  1. Define Vitamins
    Vitamins are organic, essential nutrients required in minute amounts to perform specific functions that promote growth, reproduction, or the maintenance of health and life.
  2. What is the latin breakdown of the word Vitamine?
    Vital (life) + Amine (contains nitrogen)
  3. Are B-complex vitamins Water soluble or fat-soluble vitamins?
    they are Water-Soluble Vitamins
  4. Is Vitamin D a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    Fat-Soluble
  5. Is Vitamin C a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    Vitamin C is a Water-soluble vitamin
  6. Is Vitamin K a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    fat-soluble
  7. Is Vitamin E a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    Fat-soluble
  8. what is a nother name for Thiamin?  (i.e. what type of vitamin?)  Is Thiamin a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    • it is a B-complex vitamin.
    • a.k.a. Vitamin B1
    • Water-soluble.
  9. what is a nother name for Riboflavin?  (i.e. what type of vitamin?)  Is it a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    Riboflavin is a B-complex vitamin.  it is aka B2, and it is a water-soluble vitamin.
  10. What is a nother name for Niacin?  (i.e. what type of vitamin?)  Is it a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    • B3
    • it is a b-complex vitamin, and is water-soluble.
  11. What is a nother name for Vitamin B6?  (i.e. what type of vitamin?)  Is it a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    • B6 (aka pyridoxine) is a b-complex vitamin.
    • it is a water-soluble vitamin.
  12. What is a nother name for Folate?  (i.e. what type of vitamin?)  Is it a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    aka Folacin or folic acid, is b-complex vitamin.  it is a water soluble vitamin.
  13. what type of vitamin is Biotin?  Is it a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    Biotin is a b-complex vitamin.  It is water-soluble vitamin.
  14. What is a nother name for Pantothenic acid?  (i.e. what type of vitamin?)  Is it a water-soluble or fat-soluble vitamin?
    aka pantothenate, it is a b-complex vitamin and is a water soluble vitamin.
  15. How are water-soluble vitamins:
    absorbed?
    transported?
    Stored?
    Excreted?
    • Water-soluble (B-vitamins and Vitamin C) are
    • absorbed directly into the blood.
    • transported: they travel freely in blood
    • Stored: freely circulate in water-filled parts of the body
    • Excretion:  Kidneys detect and remove excess in urine
  16. is it possible to reach toxic levels when consuming Vitamins C and B from supplements?

    what are the typical intake requirements?
    • yes possible to reach toxic levels.
    • need frequent (1-3) doses daily.
  17. How are fat-soluble vitamins:
    absorbed?
    transported?
    Stored?
    Excreted?
    • absorbed:  first into lymph, then the blood
    • Transport: many require carrier proteins
    • Storage: Trapped in cells associated with fat
    • Excreted: less readily secreted, tends to remain in fat storage sites.
  18. is it possible to reach toxic levels when consuming fat-soluble vitamins from supplements?

    what are the typical intake requirements?
    Yes you are likely to reach toxic levels from consuming too many supplements.

    Required in periodic doses (1 per week or month)
  19. Define coenzyme:

    which vitamin commonly fulfils this role?
    A coenzyme is an organic, dialyzable, thermostable molecule that functions with an enzyme to facilitate a biochemical reaction.

    B-complex vitamins are coenzymes.
  20. what is the primary role of Thiamine?
    Thiamine primarily acts as a coenzyme.
  21. what main reaction does Thamin assist with in the body?
    it starts the reaction converting pyruvate to acetyl CoA in the citric acid cycle.
  22. Which vitamin has a function in regulation of TTP? (the name gives it away)
    Thamin has a function in regulation of the Thiamin triphosphate action regulating nerve impulse transmission.
  23. what is the name for Thiamin deficiency disease?
    main symptoms?
    • Beri-Beri - "I cannot x2" - can't get up and walk
    • symptoms:  loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue
  24. name three types of Beri-Beri:
    • Dry beri-beri: alcoholics
    • Wet Beri-Beri: includes edema
    • Infantile Beri-Beri (cyanosis "blue baby" cardiac failure)
  25. What are some food sources for Thiamin?
    Pork, enriched whole grain products, Legumes (split peas)
  26. What is the primary function of Riboflavin (B2)?

    any other functions?
    it is a precursor of coenzymes FMN & FAD that participate in oxidation-reduction reactions.

    Other functions: participation in drug metabolism, lipid metabolism, powerful antioxidant
  27. What are some clinical applications concerning Thiamin?
    maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), thiamin responsive megaloblastic anemia, thiamin-responsive lactic acidosis
  28. Riboflavin Deficiency disease is called:
    Ariboflavinosis
  29. Ariboflavinosis Early symptoms:
    weakness, fatigue, mouth pain and tenderness, photophobia, personality changes
  30. Ariboflavinosis Advance symptoms:
    cheilosis/angular stomatitis (inflammation of mouth), glossitis (inflammation of tongue), dermatitis, corneal vascularization, anemia, brain dysfunction
  31. Conditions that increase risk of Riboflavin deficiency are:
    congenital heart disease, certain cancers, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, trauma and stress, thyroid disease, use of oral contraceptives
  32. Food sourcesfor riboflavin:
    milk/milk products provide the most
  33. NIACIN (B3) Primary function is as a:
    precursor of coenzymes NAD, NADP (several dehydrogenases require NAD, NADP; participation in oxidation reduction reactions
  34. Niacin Deficiency disease is called:
    Pellagra (rough + skin)
  35. o The four D’s of Pellagra are:
    dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, death (Dermatitis - Casal’s necklace & Glossitis (inflammation of the tongue)
  36. Niacin containing Food sources:
    protein-rich foods (meat, fish, poultry, peanut butter); also, enriched breads and cereals and a few vegetables; 80-90 grams will give you enough niacin
  37. What are some Niacin Clinical applications?
    treatment of hypercholesterolemia and mental disorders
  38. Thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin are generally promoted together as ______ producing, ______ increasing, and stress coping> is this true?
    Energy producing, memory enhancing. not true.
  39. PYRIDOXINE (B6) has three forms, they are:
    pyridoxal (PLP), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxamine (PM) with the Active form - pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)
  40. Primary functions of Pyridoxine:
    reactions related to amino acid metabolism, fatty acid and glucose metabolism, conversion of tryptophan to niacin, synthesis of neurotransmitters, synthesis of heme (part of hemoglobin), maintenance of immune system
  41. Symptoms of Pyridoxine Deficiency:
    first noticed in infants, used to be missing from infant formula---Early symptoms: weakness, irritability, insomnia, & Advanced symptoms (particularly in infants and children): anemia, growth failure, impaired motor function, convulsions
  42. Pyridoxine Food sources:
    protein-rich foods (meat, fish, poultry), some vegetables and fruits (bananas)
  43. Pyridoxine Clinical applications:
    PMS, gestational diabetes, carpal tunnel syndrome, hyperemis gravidarum (nausea associated with pregnancy), patients receiving drugs such as Isoniazid, Cycloserine, Penicillamine
  44. PANTOTHENIC ACID's Primary function:
    component of acetyl CoA
  45. Pantothenic Acid's Food sources:
    mushrooms (one of the most commonly found vitamins, so deficiency is rare)
  46. BIOTIN's Primary functions:
    essential cofactor for 4 carboxylase enzymes (acetyl CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase, B-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase), specific roles in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and catabolism
  47. Food source for Biotin:
    egg yolks
  48. What is Avidin:
    a protein found in raw egg whites that can bind biotin and inhibit absorption; cooking destroys avidin
  49. FOLATE (folic acid, folacin) Primary functions:
    transfer of one-carbon fragments; metabolism of serine, methionine, and histidine; synthesis of purines and pyrimidines (essential for cell division)
  50. what is the Primary coenzyme form of Folate:
    tetrahydrofolate (THF)
  51. Folate Deficiency causes:
    Neural tube defects (maternal deficiency + genetic pre-disposition; Megaloblastic anemia; Gastrointestinal abnormalities
  52. Food sources for Folate:
    leafy green vegetables (spinach, broccoli); legumes (black beans, kidney beans, black-eyed peas); liver; some fruits (oranges)
  53. Folate's Clinical applications:
    prevention of neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly - absence of brain); possible prevention of heart disease (lowering homocysteine); treatment of depression; possible prevention of Alzheimer disease
  54. Primary functions of COBALAMIN (B12)
    Primary functions: maintenance of myelin sheath; partners with folate in biochemical reactions
  55. What are the Active coenzyme forms of B12:
    methylcobalamin, 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin
  56. B12 (cobalamin) Deficiency leads to :
    Pernicious anemia; Absence or deficiency of intrinsic factor (Intrinsic factor is released from the parietal cells in the stomach; extrinsic factor is in the food we eat; need both (extrinsic and intrinsic) to cause absorption of cobalamin; Megaloblastic anemia
  57. Treatment for B12 deficiency:
    figure out cause of anemia and treat with appropriate vitamin (folate, cobalamin, or both)
  58. Deficiency of B12 Normally occurs in:
    elderly, alcoholics, and gastrectomy patients
  59. B12 Food sources:
    fish, seafood, and related products
  60. VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID)'s Primary function:
    formation of collagen: Assists in formation of strong connective tissue (proline → hydroxyproline)
  61. Apart from the primary functions, what are some other functions of vitamin C?
    synthesis of catecholamines, synthesis of thyroxine, absorption of iron, antioxidant
  62. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to:
    Scurvy; Scorbutic gums; Pinpoint hemorrhages
  63. Vitamin C Food sources:
    oranges; also, other fruits and vegetables
  64. Clinical applications of Vitamin C:
    common cold and respiratory infections; stress; cardiovascular disease; cancer
  65. Where do the majority of Fat-soluble Vitamins get absorbed in the body?
    Bile and pancreatic enzymes assist in absorption; majority of absorption takes place in small intestine
  66. what is the brief VITAMIN A Historical story:
    discovered by McCollum in 1916, “rat-growth factor”, night blindness and related disorders were recognized in ancient Egypt, treated with juice squeezed from cooked liver
  67. What are the 3 forms of Vitamin A:
    Retinol (alcohol form) - from retinyl esters; embryonic development/reproduction; Retinal (aldehyde form) - from pre-cursor beta-carotene; vision; Retinoic acid (acid form) - regulates growth
  68. Vitmain A's Primary function: other functions?
    Primary: Vision; Other functions: cell differentiation, integrity of epithelial cells(mucous membranes), immune function (T-lymphocytes and antibody response), growth(synthesis of glyocproteins), development and maintenance of bone cells (osteoblasts/osteoclasts), beta-carotene functions as antioxidant
  69. What are the symptoms of vitamin A Deficiency?
    Blindness/night blindness, anorexia, retarded growth, increases susceptibility to infections, keratinization of epithelial cells of the skin (follicular hyperkeratosis - “toad skin”), xeropthalmia (inability to produce tears)
  70. What is caused by Vitamin A Toxicity (overdose):
    anorexia, dry/itchy/desquamating (shedding) skin, alopecia (baldness), ataxia (uncoordinated movement), headache, bone and muscular pain
  71. What are some food sources for Vitamin A?
    preformed vitamin A - milk, yogurt; other: sweet potato, carrots, beef liver, apricots,spinach
  72. What are some nicknames for VITAMIN D, and what is its primary function?
    Prohormone/Sunshine Vitamin & its Primary function: regulates level of blood calcium (needed for healthy bones and teeth formation)
  73. What is the Active form of Vitamin D?
    1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D
  74. A Vitamin D Deficiency causes:
    Rickets - Same as calcium deficiency; failure of bone to mineralize; bowed legs or knock-knees, outward bowed chest (pigeon’s chest), knobs on ribs (rachitic rosary)
  75. What is Osteomalacia and in whom do you normally find it?
    adult form of Rickets (pregnant women or women who have had many children)
  76. Vitamin D Toxicity causes:
    anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hypertension, renal insufficiency, and failure to thrive
  77. Name a food source for Vit D:
    fortified milk
  78. What is another name for VITAMIN E? (it may prevent this in rats…)
    Tocopherols - related to child birth; may prevent spontaneous abortion in rats (not sure of effect in humans)
  79. Vitamin E's Primary function: antioxidant
  80. Name some Potential benefits of Vitamin E:
    protection against heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease
  81. Vitamin E Deficiency may cause:
    It's rare; may be associated with diseases of fat malabsorption such as cystic fibrosis; population groups: premature, low birth weight infants, and people with abetalipoproteinemia
  82. What are the symptoms of Vitamin E deficiency?
    Symptoms: erythrocyte hemolysis (premature infants), muscle weakness, degenerative neurologic problems, incoordination of limbs
  83. Is Vitamin E Toxicity possible?
    probably, but it is the least toxic of all fat-soluble vitamins
  84. Vitamin E Food sources:
    predominantly in vegetable oils (corn, safflower, canola), seeds, and nuts (also, shrimp, sweet potatoes)
  85. What is the VITAMIN K's Primary function:
    blood clottingL: Vitamin K helps precursor become prothrombin: Prothrombin → thrombin; fibrinogen → fibrin>clot
  86. Vitamin K Deficiency occur when:
    (uncommon) may occur in conditions associated with fat malabsorption (celiac, crohn’s); hemorrhagic disease can occur in infants who are born with a sterile gut, so given a dose of Vitamin K at birth; deficiency can occur after pro-longed use of antibiotics
  87. Describe Vitamin K Toxicity (in infants):
    hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, severe jaundice
  88. Food sources for Vitamin K:
    milk, eggs, brussels sprouts, collards, liver, cabbage, spinach, brocolli (green leafy vegetables)
  89. Define NON-VITAMINS:
    Non-essential and do not form any specific functions
  90. PHYTOCHEMICALS are believed to treat or affect:
    Heart disease, cancer, aging, etc.
  91. Give examples of where to find phytochemicals in the diet:
  92. Broccoli has Sulforaphane; Apple/black tea/blueberries contain Flavonoids; Soybeans contain Isoflavones; Garlic contains Allicin
    Grapes contain Resveratrol; Strawberries, Ellagic acid; Tomatoes, Lycopene; Citrus fruits, Limonene; Flaxseed, Lignans

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