Blk2 Phys

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Author:
rc4754
ID:
176359
Filename:
Blk2 Phys
Updated:
2012-10-08 21:03:02
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RC Cardiopulmonary Phys Obj
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CH 234 Obj RC BLK2
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  1. Define diffusion and bulk flow.
  2. What is the formula to calculate PAO?
  3. What is the relationship between PAO2 and respiratory exchange ratio?
  4. Define Fick's law and summarize the factors which affect diffusion rate.
  5. Using Graham's law and Henry's law, compare and contrast the oxygen and CO2 diffusion rates in the lung.
  6. Distinguish between the concepts of perfusion limitation and diffusion limitation with regard to gas transfer across the lung.
  7. Explain the reason carbon monoxide is an ideal test gas for assessing diffusion characterisitcs of the alveolar capillary membrane.
  8. Describe the principle underlying the measurement of the lung's diffusion capacity for CO.
  9. Distinguish between conditions that decrease the membrane surface area and increase the difusion path length.
  10. Explain the reason the diffusion capacity of the lung for CO may be abnormal before PaO2 is abnormal in the course of pulmonary disease.
  11. Compare the amounts of oxygen dissolved in plasma and combined with hemoglobin.
  12. Calculate arterial and venous oxygen contents.
  13. Differentiate the physiological consequences of oxidation and oxygenation of the hemoglobin molecule.
  14. Explain the relationships among oxygen content, saturation, partial pressure, and hemoglobin concentration.
  15. Explain the physiological advantages of the shape of the oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve.
  16. Explain the physiological consequences of the normal change in hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen as blood flows from the lungs to systemic tissues.
  17. Explain the relationships between hemoglobin oxygen affinity, oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve shifts and P50.
  18. Predict the effect of cardiac output changes on PvO2, mixed venous oxygen content, arterial-venous oxygen content difference, and the tissue oxygen-extraction ratio.
  19. Calculate the oxygen delivery rate, oxygen consumption, and tissue oxygen-extraction ratio.
  20. Explain the reason PaO2 and SaO2 by themselves are inadequate indicators of tissue oxygenation.
  21. Explain the reason cyanosis may be absent in people who have high percentages of desaturated hemoglobin and the reason cyanosis may be present in people who have normal arterial oxygen contents.
  22. Compare and contrast the physiological effects of anemia and carbon monoxide poisoning if both reduce hemoglobin availability by 50%.
  23. Explain the physiological effects of fetal hemoglobin, methemoglobin, and sickle cell hemoglobin.
  24. Discuss the major functions of blood components.
  25. List blood constituents.
  26. Explain the gross anatomy and function of each of the heart's structures.
  27. Describe how the atria, ventricles and heart valves work together to pump blood through the pulmonary and systemic circulations.
  28. Explain why the heart muscle is more blood flow dependent for oxygenation than other muscles in the .body
  29. Explain why extremely high heart rates can result in low cardiac stroke volumes and coronary artery blood flow.
  30. Describe how the specialized cardiac conduction system coordinates the synchronized contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles.
  31. Describe West's zones of the lung.
  32. Explain how the Frank-Starling mechanism helps the heart adjust to pump varying amounts of blood.
  33. Explain how pumping action and arterial elasticity work together to produce continuous blood flow.
  34. Compare how the different mechanisms work to control the distribution of blood flow through systemic capillary beds.
  35. Describe how local, central, and humoral mechanisms regulate blood pressure.
  36. Describe how Passive and Active mechanisms affect vascular resistance.
  37. Compare the amounts of oxygen dissolved in plasma and combined with hemoglobin.
  38. Calculate arterial and venous oxygen contents.
  39. Differentiate the physiological consequences of oxidation and oxygenation of the hemoglobin molecule.
  40. Explain the relationships among oxygen content, oxygen saturation, oxygen partial pressure and hemoglobin concentration.
  41. Explain the physiological advantages of the shape of the oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve.
  42. Explain the physiological consequences of the normal change in hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen as blood flows from the lungs to systemic tissues.
  43. Explain the relationships between hemoglobin oxygen affinity, oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve shifts and P50.
  44. Predict the effect of cardiac output changes on PvO2 mixed venous oxygen content, arterial-venous oxygen content difference, and the tissue oxygen-extraction.
  45. Calculate the oxygen delivery rate, oxygen consumption, and tissue oxygen-extraction ratio.
  46. Describe carbon dioxide transport.
  47. Explain the hydrolysis equation as it relates to CO2 transport.
  48. Explain how CO2 is eliminated from the body
  49. Discuss the role of the Haldane effect and the Bohr effect on COand Otransport.
  50. Define pH, acid, base.
  51. Discuss the relationships described by the Henderson-Hasselbach equation.
  52. Interpret arterial blood gas results to determine:
    Acute ventilatory failure/uncompensated respiratory acidosis
    Chronic ventilatory failure/compensated respiratory acidosis
    Acute alveolar hyperventilation/uncompensated respiratory alkalosis
    Chronic alveolar hyperventilation/compensated respiratory alkalosis
    Metabolic acidosis
    Metabolic alkalosis

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