Lab practical

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  1. 1.   Scientific method 
    • an accepted objective approach (not
    • influenced by personal aspects) to answering questions in the field of science.
    • This method of inquiry involves a series of steps that lead 2 a credible or valid outcome. 
  2. Mk an observation·
    • May b done frm wk already done or experiences·
    • May cm frm reading bout wk others hv done
  3. Ask a question(s)·
    “If I introduce a chng 2 d xperimental dsign that resulted in my previous observations, will it chng d outcm?
  4. Propose a hypothesis (possible question-&-answer, or “educated guess”)·
    Set up d hypothesis as an “if_____ then _______” statement.
  5. Test d hypothesis (set up an experiment or mk a new set of observations)·
    Set up a control group everything in this experimental group REMAINS D SAME, NOTHING CHANGES!·       Set up an experimental group everything EXEPT d ONE variable (d independent variable) you think is going 2 mk a diff remains d same.
  6.  Record ur results.
     B sure 2 record ur results exactly as u observe m. B as clear, descriptive & specific as possible. Determine if u r able 2 accept or reject d hypothesis
  7. Retest 
    ur xperiment’s results should b repeatable.
  8. Hypothesis educated guess 
    is set up in an “if___ the _____” format.
  9. Null Hypothesis 
    States that d treatment has no effect on d outcome of d experiment
  10. Experimental group
    group that experience d independent variable
  11. Independent 
    variable in control of d investigator. D ONE thing that chngs.
  12. Dependent variables
    result (effect) of d influence of d independent variable
  13. Control variable 
    variables that REMAIN d SAME 2 ALL groups in d experiment
  14. Control group 
     everything in this experimental group REMAINS D SAME, NOTHING CHANGES!
  15. Meter (m)  
    measures length & distance
  16.  Gram (g)  
    measures mass
  17. Liter (l)  measures volume (fluids/liquids)
    measures volume (fluids/liquids)
  18. Meniscus
    bow (arch) created by d adhesion of fluids (H2O) when using graduated cylindersMeasure from the lowest point for accuracy
  19. Know this
  20. Field of view
    Circular field seen when looking through d ocular lens of a microscope.
  21. Total magnification
    combination of magnification of d eyepiece (10X) times d magnification of d objectives (4X, 10X, 40X)
  22. 10X x 4X = 
  23.  10X x 10X = 
  24. 10X x 40X = 
  25. Working distance 
    distance btwn d specimen (slide) & d objective lens
  26. Longitudinal sections 
    (l.s.) section that is cut along d long axis of a structure
  27. Cross sections -  
    (x.s. or c.s.) transverse cut through a structure, tissue or specimen.
  28. Whole mount - 
    (w.m.)placing a whole organism or specimen on a slide 4 microscopic examination.
  29. Wet mount
    used for microscopic examination of LIVING tissues or cell
  30. Steps to wet mound
    • a.  Place specimen on a blank slide
    • b.  Add a drop of H2O
    • c   Slowly lower d cvr slip frm 1 side of d H2O drop so any air bubbles will b pushed out as
    • d   cvr slip cms down.
  31. Cohesion
    property of H2O that mks its molecules attract 2 e/o. Responsible 4 surface tension (creating na H2O suface “skin”).
  32. Adhesion
    property of H2O, tendency of H2O 2 H bond 2 other compounds. Responsible 4 meniscus.
  33. Capillary action
    mvmnt of H2O wicked up a sml diameter tube due 2 adhesion.
  34.  Heat capacity
    capacity of H2O to resist chngs in temp.
  35.  Solvent
    fluid that dissolves d solute (i.e. H2O)
  36. Solute
    substance dissolved in a solvent 2 form a solution (i.e. sugar, salt)
  37. Polarity
     lk a battery w a + & a – end/side
  38. polar molecules 
    - i.e. H2O
  39. nonpolar 
    i.e. oils
  40. pH
    Is a measurement of d percentage of Hydrogen ions (H+) found in a solution.
  41. Phenol red 
    Phenol red is a water-soluble dye used as a pH indicator, changing from yellow to red over pH 6.6 to 8.0, and then turning a bright pink color above pH 8.1
  42. Covalent 
    Bond in which e- r SHARED btwn molecules, d stronger atom has more “pull”, d atoms bcm bi-polar
  43. ionic bonding 
    Bond in which e- r GIVEN or TAKEN btwn molecules
  44.  “TAKER” (In ionic bonding)
    molecule becomes (-) negatively chgd
  45. “GIVER” (in ionic bonding)
    molecule becomes (+) positively chgd
  46. Hydrogen bond 
    d WEAK attractions that exist btwn 2 or > polar covalent molecules. Also hold Nitrogen bases together in DNA.
  47.  Acetic acid 
    (vinegar) pH of 3 (STRONGLY acidic), increases d acidity level in a solution (turns it yellow).
  48. baking soda 
    pH of 6 (almost neutral), neutralizes d pH in a solution (turns it red)
  49. Organic
    (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, PS) compound containing BOTH Carbon & Hydrogen
  50. inorganic molecules
    NOT consisting (or containing) of Carbon
  51. Benedict’s regeant
    • Rx 2 Carbohydrate (sugars). 
    • + test show tones of aoranges 2 browns.
    • - test remains blue
  52. Biuret reagent
    • Rx 2 proteins
    • + test show tones of purples
    • - test remains blue
  53. Iodine
    • Rx 2 starch
    • + test show tones  of purples & black
    • - test remains orange
  54. Sudan Red stain 
    Rx w Lipids+ test Lipids r stained RED
  55. Amylase
  56. All cell parts and their functions
  57. Differences b/t plant and animal cells 
    • ONLY plant cell has:a.   
    • Lg central Vacuoleb.   
    • Cell wallc.    
    • Plastids (Chloro, Chromo & Amilo)
  58. Prokaryotic
    • a)   NO nucleous
    • b)  NO membrane bonded organelles
    • c)   DNA is circular
  59.  Eukaryotic
    • a)   Membrane bonded nucleus & organelles
    • b)   DNA is IN d nucleus
  60. Bacillus
    Rod shape (Tic-Tac)
  61. Cocci
    Spherical shape (marbles)
  62. Spirillium 
    Spiral shape (spring)
  63. Gram Staining
    • Gram staining is a common technique used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria based on their different cell wall constituents.
    • + purple
    • - pink
  64. All 3 domains
  65. Heterotrophic 
    organism that CAN’T mk its own food & can move to gt it. i.e umans& animals
  66. Autotrophic
    organisms tha CAN mk its own food (i.e. by photosynthesis), i.e. plants
  67. Binary fission
    is a form of asexual reproduction which is used by all prokaryotic organisms

  68.     Conjugation 
    •  is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells
  69. Colonies-nostoc (aka Witches’ butter)
  70. Amoeba
  71. Paramecium
  72. Trypanosome 
    • Causes d sleeping sickness, carried by tetsi fly
  73. Dinoflagellates
  74.   Osmosis 
    Refers 2 d mvmnt of molecules through a selective or semipermeable membrane (i.e dialysis tubing) requires d presence of H2O
  75. Diffusion 
    movement of a solution from high 2 low concentration
  76. Hyper 
    low H2O HIGH solute, causes cell to LOOSE H2O (Plasmolysis/Crenation)
  77. Hypo 
    high H2O LOW solute, causes cell to GAIN H2O (Turgor/Lysis)
  78.  Iso 
    Balanced, SAME amnt in d cell than in d solution
  79. Hemolysis 
    occurs when the BLOOD cell swells &/or burst bcz they GAIN H2O
  80. Crenation
    refers to cells that LOOSES H2O
  81. Turgor pressure 
    refers to a plant cell that swells bcz they GAIN H2O, it can’t burst bcz it has cell wall.
  82.  Plasmolysis
    refers to a plant cell that shrinks bcz it LOOSES H2O
  83. Semi-permeable membranes
    one that allows some particles (molecules and ions) to pass through and it restricts d movement of others.
  84. Plasma membrane
     phospholipid bilayer, Fluid Mosaic, contains proteins that facilitate de passage through.
  85.     Factors affecting movement across a membrane
    • a.   Size of molecules
    • b.   Charge of ion/molecule
    • c.   solubility
  86. Dialysis tubing 
     semi-permeable membrane used in lab
  87. Relative size of molecules with regard to membranes 
    – Lg molecules can’t pass though while sml one can. i.e. Iodine vs Starch
  88. Stomata 
    opening “window” in d lower epidermis of d leave, facilitates &/or prevents d loss of amnt of H2O in d plant. Opens in turgor (turgid), closes in plasmolysis (flaccid).
  89. Guard cells
    • an epidermal cell 2 d side of a leaf stoma that helps 2 control d stoma size
  90.  Photosynthesis 
    6CO2 + 6H2O→Rx w (SUN LIGHT ENERGY)→products C6H12O6 + 6O2
  91. Phototropism 
    organisms that cant “move” i.e. plants. They grow towards d light source.
  92. Phototaxis w/Euglena
    (“takes a TAXI”) organisms that CAN move (i.e. animals &microorganisms) that are photophilic (“light lovers”) move towards d light.
  93. Chromatography
  94.  Starch in plants
  95.  Emulsification –polar and nonpolar items 
  96. Eukaryotic Cells
  97. Upper epidermis
  98. Lower epidermis

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Lab practical
2012-10-09 01:20:10
Bio 101

Bio lab review
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