Anthropology 2-1

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Author:
rjtorn22
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176372
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Anthropology 2-1
Updated:
2012-10-08 21:34:06
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Anthropology
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Anthropology 2-1
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  1. What is Archaeology?
    • Greek: "arkhaios"-"ancient"; "logia"-"study"
    • Scientific study of the human past
    • Material remains left behind
    • Time depth to the study of culture
    • Inferences about past life based on what is found
    • Two sub-fields 1) Prehistoric  2)Historic
  2. Fieldwork
    • Site: spacial clustering of artifacts, features, structures, & organic remains found in context
    • Context: knowing an artifact's relationship to other artifacts and the surrounding soil
    • Mapping and Surveying
    • Excavate, screen, collect soil samples, take photographs
    • Map the stratigraphy
    • Document your findings
  3. Artifact
    Portable object used, modified, or made by humans
  4. Feature
    Non-portable object used, modified, or made by humans
  5. Pottery
    • Fired clay
    • Food storage, preparation, and consumption
    • Ancient artistry: figurines, beads, pendants
    • Questions to ask:
    • ---Age of the vessel?
    • ---Materials and quarry site?
    • ---How was the vessel made? (coil, pinch, wheel)?
    • ---How was the vessel used?
    • ---Culture that made the ceramic?
  6. Ecofacts
    • Bone, antler, horn, teeth, shell, plant remains
    • Questions to ask:
    • 1)  Age of the remains?
    • 2) Which plant or animal species?
    • 3) Ancient diets?
    • 4) Ancient climates?
    • 5) Domesticated or wild species?
    • 6) Hunting and butchering strategies?
    • 7) Animal's season and age of death?
  7. Lab Work
    • Clean artifacts
    • Label, store, and curate the artifacts
    • Publish your findings
  8. Finding Sites
    • 1) Pedestrian Surveys
    • 2) Aerial Surveys
    • 3) Geophysical Methods
    • 4) Excavations
    • 5) Word of Mouth
    • 7) Documentary Sources
  9. Artifact Survival
    • Stone Tools: very well
    • Fired Clay: very well
    • Metals: gold, silver, lead: very well
    • Metals: copper, bronze, iron: not well
    • Organic Materials: dependent on climate
    • -Tropical Climates: destructive
    • -Cold and Dry Climates: good
    • -Waterlogged Environments: good
  10. The middle paleothic
    • Homo Neanderthalensis
    • Homo Sapiens
    • ~200,000 -- ~40,000 BP
  11. Neanderthals
    • Discovered in 1856 in the "Neander Tal"
    • Lived in Europe and SW Asia - ~230,000 to ~28,000 BP
    • Brain size (>1400cc)
    • Stocky with large trunks, rugged skeleton and musculature
    • Large front teeth; broad faces; large brow ridges
    • Made and wore clothing
    • Cooperative hunters (reindeer, mammoth, and woolly rhinos)
    • Tool makers (Mousterian)
    • Small flaked tools (often retouched) made using the prepared core method
    • Deliberate burials (concept of afterlife? religion?)
  12. What happended to the Neanderthals species?
    • 1) Genocide
    • 2) Interbreeding hypothesis
    • 3) Out-competed by humans
  13. Homo Sapiens
    • 200,000 BP
    • Earliest members of our species
    • Africa, Europe, and Asia
    • Tool technology became more sophisticated
    • Bow and arro (60,000 BP?)
    • Articulated speech, cognition, self-awareness, foresight, creative and emotional expression?
  14. Homo Sapien Migration Timeline
    • Africa – ~200,000 BP;
    • Asia – ~80,000 to ~60,000 BP;
    • Europe – ~40,000 BP;
    • Australia – ~45,000 BP;
    • North and South America – ~15,000 BP

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