used for evaluating interventions that compares groups of cases that have contrasting outcomes. Then collects retrospective data about the past differences that may explain the different outcomes. Relies on multivariate statistical procedures
inference based on research design and findings that logically implies the IV really has a causal impact on the DV
variable that is held constant to help clarify the relationship between two other variables.
a study base on obvservation at a single point in time
a variable, when controlled, shows the direction of a bivariate relationship.
EX. a relationship that was positive may now become negative
a better way to understand the meaning of the relationship btw variables
refers to the degree with which we can generalize the findings of a study to settings/population beyond the study conditions
the degree to which an effect observed in an experience was actually produced by the experimental stimulus and not the result of other factors
why is history a threat to internal validity?
bc there could have been extraneous events that coincided in time with the manipulations of the IV
potential threats to internal validity (7)
passage of time
why is statistical regression a threat to internal validity?
it refers to the tendency for extreme scores at pretest to become less extreme at posttest
why is selection bias a threat to internal validity?
refers to the assignment of research groups in a way that does not maximize their comparability regarding the DV
why is passage of time a threat to internal validity?
associated with the changes in the DV that occurred naturally as time passes and not because of the IV
why is maturation a threat to internal validity?
refers to aging effects or developmental changes that influence the DV
the analysis of the simultaneous relationship among several variables
EX. the effects of age, sex and social class on religiosity
refers to decisions made in the planning and conducting of research, weather logical arrangements permit causal inference
measurements, sampling, collection of data, and logical arrangements
3 types of pre-experiments
1 shot case study
one group pretest/posttest
posttest only design with control group
the process by by concepts are made more specific
also used in elaboration model
a relationship between 2 variables that are no longer related win a 3rd variable explains away the original relationship
when controlled in multicultural analysis, shows that 2 variables that appear unrelated are actually more strongly related than they appear
3 basic criteria for the determination of causation
1. IV (cause) and DV (effect) are empirically related
2. IV must occur earlier in time of the DV
3. observed relationship cannot be explained away by a influence of 3rd variable
when the participant knows they are being observed and behave in the way the researchers would like.