research chapt 10.txt

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research chapt 10.txt
2012-10-08 21:38:32
research chapter 10

chapter 10 - 10/8/12
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  1. case-control design
    used for evaluating interventions that compares groups of cases that have contrasting outcomes. Then collects retrospective data about the past differences that may explain the different outcomes. Relies on multivariate statistical procedures
  2. causal inference
    inference based on research design and findings that logically implies the IV really has a causal impact on the DV
  3. control variable
    variable that is held constant to help clarify the relationship between two other variables.
  4. cross-sectional study
    a study base on obvservation at a single point in time
  5. distorter variable
    • a variable, when controlled, shows the direction of a bivariate relationship.
    • EX. a relationship that was positive may now become negative
  6. elaboration model
    a better way to understand the meaning of the relationship btw variables
  7. external validity
    refers to the degree with which we can generalize the findings of a study to settings/population beyond the study conditions
  8. internal validity
    the degree to which an effect observed in an experience was actually produced by the experimental stimulus and not the result of other factors
  9. why is history a threat to internal validity?
    bc there could have been extraneous events that coincided in time with the manipulations of the IV
  10. potential threats to internal validity (7)
    • history
    • maturation
    • passage of time
    • selection bais
    • statistical regression
  11. why is statistical regression a threat to internal validity?
    it refers to the tendency for extreme scores at pretest to become less extreme at posttest
  12. why is selection bias a threat to internal validity?
    refers to the assignment of research groups in a way that does not maximize their comparability regarding the DV
  13. why is passage of time a threat to internal validity?
    associated with the changes in the DV that occurred naturally as time passes and not because of the IV
  14. why is maturation a threat to internal validity?
    refers to aging effects or developmental changes that influence the DV
  15. multivariate analysis
    • the analysis of the simultaneous relationship among several variables
    • EX. the effects of age, sex and social class on religiosity
  16. research design
    • refers to decisions made in the planning and conducting of research, weather logical arrangements permit causal inference
    • measurements, sampling, collection of data, and logical arrangements
  17. 3 types of pre-experiments
    • 1 shot case study
    • one group pretest/posttest
    • posttest only design with control group
  18. specification
    • the process by by concepts are made more specific
    • also used in elaboration model
  19. spurious relationship
    a relationship between 2 variables that are no longer related win a 3rd variable explains away the original relationship
  20. suppressor variable
    when controlled in multicultural analysis, shows that 2 variables that appear unrelated are actually more strongly related than they appear
  21. 3 basic criteria for the determination of causation
    • 1. IV (cause) and DV (effect) are empirically related
    • 2. IV must occur earlier in time of the DV
    • 3. observed relationship cannot be explained away by a influence of 3rd variable
  22. obtrusive observation
    when the participant knows they are being observed and behave in the way the researchers would like.