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What are 3 types of heat related problems?
- Heat cramps/fatigue.
- Heat Exhaustion.
- Heat Stroke.
What are the signs/symptons of Heat Exhaustion?
- Profuse sweating.
- Cold, clammy skin.
- Normal or slightly elevated temperature.
- Pale & Dizzy.
- Weak rapid pulse.
- Shallow breathing.
- Nausea & headache.
- Loss of consciousness.
What are the signs of heat stroke?
- Generally no perspiration.
- Dry skin.
- Very hot.
- High temperature.
- Heat Stroke is a medical emergency.
What are the four types of ignition source?
What are the two pressure regions inside a compartment fire and what separates them?
- Over-pressure region.
- Under-pressure region.
- Separated by the neutral plane.
What is Pyrolosis?
Decompostion of a substance by heat.
What are two types of 'controlled fire?
- Fuel controlled.
- Ventilation controlled.
Flashover is a transition stage in the development of a compartment fire that results from the ignition of accumulated fire gases leading to total room involvement.
- Once it has consumed the available oxygen, the fire begins to subside, even though the compartment and the contents are still very hot.
- The introduction of oxygen supplies the missing ingredient and the smoke ignites, if an ignition source is available.
What signs do firefighters need to be alert for when reading a fire?
- Height & movement of neutral plane.
- Changes in the air track.
- Changes in smoke colour.
- Pulsations of smoke.
- Turbulent movement of smoke gases.
- Smoke being drawn back through an opening.
- Flames in the overpressure region.
- Blackening and crazing of windows without flame showing.
- Whistling noises.
- Colour of flame.
- Heat build up.
What are three methods of extinguishing a fire?
- Direct extinguishing.
- Indirect extinguishing.
- Gas Cooling.
What is ventilation?
Ventilation is the planned and systematic removal of smoke, heated air and fire gases from a structure and their replacement with a supply of cooler and cleaner air in order to faciliitate other firefighting priorities.
What are the advantages of ventilation?
- Speeds initial attack by improving visibility allowing for quicker location of and access to the seat of the fire.
- Removal of superheated gasses reduces flashover/backdraught risk.
- Working conditions will be improved.
- Speed of secondary searches increased.
- Victim survival increases due to removal of toxic gases and introduction of clean air.
- Property damage lessened by quicker extinguishment.
- Overhaul conditions are improved with the removal of toxic gases.
What will the IC consider before commencing ventilation?
- Location of fire.
- Best location for the exhaust opening to be created (use of TIC).
- Appointment of FF to coordinate ventilation operations.
- Informing fireground personnel that PPV is in operation and location of exhaust vents.
- Once PPV has commenced, entry to structure will be by inlet opening only.