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Define Trace Elements
Trace elements, also microminerals are nutrients that are needed by the human body in very small ammounts (less than 1/100th of 1 % of total body weight).
what is the typical dietary need for the body regarding trace minerals?
1 ppm or less
what are the 4 most extensively studied trace elements?
T/F concentrations of trace elements in the body are highly regulated.
T/F normal body function doesn't necessitate an optimal range for trace minerals b/c toxicity won't occur near the estimated requirement doses
False, it does necessitate an optimal range because toxicity can occur not far above the estimated requirement.
How much Iron is in your body and where is most of it found?
2-4 grams in your body, mostly found in hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Iron has 4 functions in the body, name them:
Transport oxygen to the tissues; energy production; maintain immunity; synthesis of amino acids, hormones and neurotransmitters.
Where is Heme Iron found in the diet?
Only foods derived from animal flesh have Heme Iron, but both meat and plants contain non-heme iron.
T/F Heme accounts for about 17% of the average daily iron intake, but 35% of the iron absorbed.
False, Heme accounts for 10% of the average iron intake but 35% of all iron absorbed.
List some factors (and one vitamin) that increase Iron absorption.
- Factors that increase Iron Absorption:
- Gastric Acid
- Heme Iron in food
- blood loss, altitude (high need for red blood cells)
- low body stores of iron
- Meat protein factor (MPF)
- Vitamin C
List some factors that decrease the body's absorption of Iron
- Phytic aid,
- oxalic acid in leafy veggies,
- polyphenols in tea or coffee or wine; f
- ull stores of iron;
- excess of other minerals like zinc
- reduced gastric output and some antacids
name some good food sources for IRON
- navy beans
- Dried Figs
- Swiss Chard?
T/F cooking in an iron skilled doesn't add any iron to the food.
False, it does add some iron... only a little.
Iron absorption is highest from these food sources:
Liver, Beef, and Fish
What is Anemia?
Anemia results from a deficiency of Iron (primarily) or also from a deficiency in Vitamin B12, Protein or Vitamin B6
Apart from deficiencies in nutrients, what other conditions can lead to anemia?
Hemmorage, Genetic Abnormalities, Chronic Disease states like cancer or cardiovascular disease; also drug toxicity can be a cause of anemia.
What populations are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency?
- Women in Childbearing years
- Pregnant Women
What are some of the symptoms of Iron-deficiency Anemia?
Fatigue, Anorexia (a lack of appetite); reduced capacity to perform work; Poor immune response; Impared cognitive function;
How do you treat iron-deficiency anemia?
Administer iron salts and amend diet.
What are the two types of Iron toxicity/iron overload?
Hemochromatosis and Hemosiderosis
what percent of US population is in positive iron balance, what percent have an overload?
is iron overload dangerous?
10 percent have a positive iron balance and 1% is in iron overload.
iron overload is dangerous b/c research has linked it (high Fe in blood) with an increased risk of heart disease.
Where in the body is Zinc found? how much is in your body
Zinc is found in all organs and tissues, mostly concentrated in bone, liver, kidney, muscle and skin.
body contains 1.5 to 2.5 grams.
What are the primary functions of Zinc?
- Cofactor for more than 100 Enzymes!!!
- Cellular Growth
- Bone formation
- Cell-mediated immunity
What populations typically suffer from zinc deficiency?
- Trauma Patients
- post surgical patients
What are the symptoms of zinc deficiency?
- Growth retardation (remember photo of man that was boy sized)
- Skeletal abnormalities
- Defective collagen synthesis
- Poor wound healing
- Delayed sexual maturation (children)
Name some good food sources for zinc:
- Black Beans
- Green Peas
- Sirloin Steak
Selenium's primary function is to:
Act as an antioxidant and a co-factor for Glutathione Peroxidase
name the two diseases associated with Selenium Deficiency and where they were observed.
- Keshan Disease
- Kashin-Beck's Disease
- observed in China
what are the symptoms/issues from keshan disease and what causes it?
- Selenium deficiency causes it.
- issues are: Cardiomyopathy; Congestive Heart Failure; Necrosis of the heart tissue
what does Kashin-Beck's Disease do to the body? what causes it?
Selenium deficiency causes it. the symptom/issue is called Osteoarthropathy (a degeneration and necrosis of joints and epiphyseal-plate cartilages of the arms and legs).
What is the primary function of Iodine in the body?
it is a key constituent of thyroid hormones: T3 triiodothyronine and T4 Tetraiodothyronine.
how many iodine ions are there attached to a thyroid hormone molecule?
3 or 4
What aspects of human body are influenced by thyroid hormones?
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR); Oxygen consumption; regulation of body temp; synthesis of red blood cels; development of nervous system (first six months of fetal development).
Deficiency of Iodine causes a:
- from dietary insufficiency of iodine (causes tissue of thyroid gland to hypertrophy)
or goiter from Ingestion of goitrogens.
what are the symptoms of Goiter?
- weight gain
- Physical/Mental retardation
maternal iodine deficiency can cause: ___________
which affects ________ children worldwide
Cretinism (retardation) IQ under 20. Hearing Loss, Motor disorders (spasticity or rigidity of muscles).
what are the food sources for Iodine in the diet?
- iodized salt
- dairy products
T/F toxicity from overconsumption of iodine is not a threat
False, overconsumption can lead to severe enlargement of the thyroid gland, and depressed thyroid activity
what is the primary function of fluoride?
The mineralization of teeth and bones
fluoride converts hydroxiyapatite into what?
Fluoride may play a role in two possible issues:
anemia and impaired growth and reproduction in animals.
How/where is fluoride absorbed into the body?
readily absorbed from stomach and intestine via PASSIVE diffusion; more than 99% occurs in calcified tissue.
according to the lecture, dental caries rank as the nations _____ widespread health problem.
What % of population have decayed or missing or filled teeth?
dental caries are the nations most widespread health problem.
95% of the populaion have decayed missing or filled teeth.
what are the main food sources for fluoride in the diet?
- drinking water (fluoridated)
what condition results from fluoride toxicity?
Fluorosis - looks like mottled Teeth
acute toxicity from fluoride posioning can cause:
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, acidosis, cardiac arrhythmias
Your body contains _____ of copper and it occurs where in the body?
contains 100mg of copper, occuring in muscles liver, brain and blood
what is the function of Copper in the body?
it is a Constituent of several enzymes and plays a key role in Fe metabolism.
Copper deficiency is observed in this population: ________ and can be caused by excess consumption of this other trace mineral: ________________
what are some food sources for copper?
- Whole Grains
- Organ meats
Your body contains ______ mg of manganese.
where does it occur in the body?
- Contains 20mg of manganese
- occurs mostly in the bones and metabolically active organs like liver and kidneys and pancreas.
What is the function of Manganese?
a cofactor for other enzymes.
High intakes of ________ and ________ consumption can limit manganese absorption.
iron and calcium
T/F Manganese toxicity can occur in special populationis like miners. it can cause____________
True. it can cause brain disease, abnormalities in appearance and behavior.
Chromium is an essential mineral that participates in ___________ and ____________ metabolism. involved in ___________ homeostasis.
carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. it contributes to glucose homeostasis.
What is GTF and what does it do? what trace mineral is involved?
Chromium is part of GTF, and it enhances the effectiveness of insulin.
T/F Mushrooms are a good source for chromium.
food sources for chromium:
- whole grains
- vegetable oil
T/F Lead is a trace mineral.
False, lead is a contaminant mineral. it can lead to MR in children and stunted growh, dental caries, deafness.
in adults it causes hypertension, reproductive failure and kidney failure.
what populations can benefit from consuming vitamin and mineral supplements?
- Pregnant/lactating women
- Patients suffereing from chronic disease.
babies are ___ water by weight
T/F water is the body's most indispensable nutrient.
True. you die after 8 days or so w/o water.
List the basic functions of Water:
- Transport of nutrients and waste products
- Maintenance of blood volume
- Participation in chemical reactions
- Solvent for nutrients (vitamins/minerals)
what are sources of water in the diet...
- metabolic water
What is the weight of the water in a human body typically?
a little under 100 lbs.
consequences of dehydration in the range of loss of 1-2% body weight are:
- loss of 1-2% body weight
- thirst, fatigue, weakness, vague discomfort, loss of appetite
consequences of dehydration in the range of loss of 3-4% body weight are:
impared physical performance, dry mouth, reduction in urine, flushed skin, impatience, apathy
consequences of dehydration in the range of loss of 5-6% body weight are:
difficulty in concentrating, headache, irritability, sleepiness, impared temperature regulation, increased respiratory rate.
consequences of dehydration in the range of loss of 7-10% body weight are:
dizziness, spastic muscles, loss of balance, delirium, exhaustion
water is possibly related to several chronic disease, such as:
- coronary heart disease
Recommended daily intake for water if a person expends 2-3 K calories a day:
needs about 2-3 liters of water (7 to 11 cups)
What are the functions of Sodium (non-essential) in the body:
- Major cation of the ECF
- Maintenance of acid-base balance
- Essential for nerve transmission and muscle contraction
name some food sources for sodium
- Table Salt
- soy sauce
- processed foods
What is function of Chloride?
- a major anion of ECF
- maintenance of normal fluid and electrolyt balance
- maintenance of gastric acidity
food sources for chloride:
- processed foods
Potassium functions in the body:
- Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance
- cell integrity
- nerve impulse transmission
- muscle contractions
- cardiac support
what can result from a deficiency of potassium?
- Diabetic acidosis
- prolonged vomiting
symptoms of Potassium deficiency
- muscular weakness
food sources for K.
- fresh foods especially fruits and vegies.
This is the most abundant mineral in the body:
primary function of Ca in the body;
mineralization of bones and teeth.
what are the serum calcium levels in the body?
2.2 to 2.5 mmol/liter
functions of calcium in the body (apart form primary):
blood clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, regullation of enzyme action, membrane permeability, maintenance of immunity, reg of blood pressure.
if Ca in blood is too high what happens?
calcitonin lowers the blood calcium by stimulating osteoblasts.
if Ca too low?
Vit D raises blood Ca by accelerating ca absorption in intestines; parathyroid hormine raise blood Ca by promoting Ca reabsorption in kidneys; Vit D and parath hormone raise blood Ca by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone.
what is hypercalcemia?
Calcium Rigor (of the muscle)
calcium tetany (intermittent spasms of the extremities due to muscular excitability)
facors that enhance Ca Absorption
- Vitamin D
- Ca:P ratio
- Hormones that promote growth
factors that decrease calcium absorption