consequences of dehydration in the range of loss of 5-6% body weight are:
difficulty in concentrating, headache, irritability, sleepiness, impared temperature regulation, increased respiratory rate.
consequences of dehydration in the range of loss of 7-10% body weight are:
dizziness, spastic muscles, loss of balance, delirium, exhaustion
water is possibly related to several chronic disease, such as:
coronary heart disease
Recommended daily intake for water if a person expends 2-3 K calories a day:
needs about 2-3 liters of water (7 to 11 cups)
What are the functions of Sodium (non-essential) in the body:
Major cation of the ECF
Maintenance of acid-base balance
Essential for nerve transmission and muscle contraction
name some food sources for sodium
What is function of Chloride?
a major anion of ECF
maintenance of normal fluid and electrolyt balance
maintenance of gastric acidity
food sources for chloride:
Potassium functions in the body:
Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance
nerve impulse transmission
what can result from a deficiency of potassium?
symptoms of Potassium deficiency
food sources for K.
fresh foods especially fruits and vegies.
This is the most abundant mineral in the body:
primary function of Ca in the body;
mineralization of bones and teeth.
what are the serum calcium levels in the body?
2.2 to 2.5 mmol/liter
functions of calcium in the body (apart form primary):
blood clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, regullation of enzyme action, membrane permeability, maintenance of immunity, reg of blood pressure.
if Ca in blood is too high what happens?
calcitonin lowers the blood calcium by stimulating osteoblasts.
if Ca too low?
Vit D raises blood Ca by accelerating ca absorption in intestines; parathyroid hormine raise blood Ca by promoting Ca reabsorption in kidneys; Vit D and parath hormone raise blood Ca by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone.
what is hypercalcemia?
Calcium Rigor (of the muscle)
calcium tetany (intermittent spasms of the extremities due to muscular excitability)