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(1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents.
People under the age of 9 experience...
Preconventional moral reasoning
In preconventional moral reasoning, notions of right and wrong are dominated by...
- obeying authority and avoiding punishment
- making a fair exchange, a good deal
In preconventional moral reasoning, Heinz should or should not steal the drugs & why?
- No, because he will be jailed.
- Yes, because his wife will repay him later
In conventional moral reasoning, notions of right and wrong are dominated by...
- Following rules and social order
- Pleasing others and getting their approval
In conventional moral reasoning, Heinz should or should not steal the drugs & why?
- -should steal the drug because he loves his wife and because she and the rest of the family will approve
- -should steal the drug for his wife because he has a duty to care for her, or he should not steal the drug because stealing is illegal
In postconventional moral reasoning, notions of right and wrong are dominated by...
- -Respecting rules and laws, but recognizing that they may have limits
- -Following universal ethical principles, such as justice, reciprocity, equality, and respect for human life and rights
In postconventional moral reasoning, Heinz should or should not steal the drugs and why?
- (should because life is more important)
- Mother Teresa
What declines with age?
- -Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities, and cardiac output
- -Recall memory does decline with age (essay test)
What does not decline with age?
-Recognition memory does not decline with age (multiple choice test)
Detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and convert it into neural signals.
Where does sensation occur?
-eye and brain
When we select, organize, and interpret our sensations.
Where does perception occur?
-happens in the mind
Define bottom-up processing.
- Analysis of the stimulus begins with the sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind.(deals with sensation)
The letter "A" being broken down into features by the brain that we perceive as an "A" is an example of what?
Define Top-down Processing.
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawing on our experience and expectations.
Give some examples of Top-down Processing.
- -Why when your are proofreading a paper you need another person to look at it because your eyes are filling in the holes
- -"THE CAT" When seen as a whole, it is percieved as the words themselves, but then you take away the other letters and realize the A's were not connected at all.
- -Looking at the picture and seeing faces (perception)
How do we see complex images?
Our sensory and perceptual processes work together to help us sort out...
Wavelength is the...
muscles around the eye
opening that lets light in
Transparent jelly-like substance
- -covers back surface, light-sensitive cells
- -A layer of photo-sensitive cells in the back of the eye
What does the retina do to photons that turns them into chemical changes? What does this result in?
Transduces. Results in neural impulses.
What does the retina transduce?
The two types of receptors/cells in the retina are...
rods and cones
Where is the bipolar layer?
Located between photoreceptors and ganglion cells.
- Where light hits on the back of the eye,
- Central point in the retina around which the eye’s cones cluster
- Specialized, Sharp vision, directly back of eye
- CONTAINS ONLY CONES
- carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
- nerves collect into a cable so no room for retina here
Changing shape and size of the lens
Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located there
carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Location in retina
Sensitivity in light
1.) Light reaches the rods and cones
2.) Chemical reactions activate bipolar cells
3.) Bipolar cells activate ganglion cells
4.) the axons of the ganglion cells bunch up to form the optic nerve
Optic nerves connect to the _____ in the middle of the brain, and the ______ connects to the visual cortex.
Where does feature detection take place?
edges, angles, and movement.
Where does shape detection take place?
shoes, faces, chairs, and houses.
Define Parallel Processing.
Processing of several aspects of the stimulus simultaneously
Describe the process from Sensation to Recognition
Scene>Retinal Processing>Feature detection>Parallel Processing>Recognition
Describe the Tri-chromatic Theory of Color Vision.
Any color can be produced by mixing pure versions of blue, green, and red light in different ratios.
Name the three types of cones.
- Red cones
- Blue cones
- Green cones
Define Color Blindness.
- Genetic disorder in which people are blind to green or red colors. This supports the Trichromatic theory.
- Ishihara Test
What is the Problem with Tri-chromatic Theory of Color Vision?
- The trichromatic theory cannot explain some aspects of color vision, such as afterimages.
- Red-green color blind people can still see yellow
- Stare at the dot on the next slide for 30 seconds
Describe the Opponent-Process Theory of Color Vision.
- Visual elements sensitive to color are grouped into three pairs. The members of each pair, oppose, or inhibit, each other
- Three pairs of red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white.
Which Theory is correct? Why?
Both! At the retina: you have 3 types of cones (Tri-chromatic theory). At ganglion cells, there are receptors paired among complimentary colors (opponent-process)
What is loudness determined by?
amplitude, or height, of the sound wave
What is pitch determined by?
- frequency of the sound wave
- (Determines how high or low a tone sounds)
How do we hear? (think energy)
Mechanical energy converted into electrical activity (neural impulses)
Describe the three processes that lead to hearing sounds?
- 1.) Sound waves collected by auditory structures
- (ear, tympanic membrane)
- 2.) Transduction via the cochlea
- (movement of hair in the basilar membrane)
- 3.) Neural signals sent to brain via auditory nerve
What occurs in the cochlea?
What does the hair do in the cochlea?
sway back and forth when inner ear fluid moves, and stimulates nerves
What happens when you blast music into a guinnea pig's ears?
You permanently damage the hairs in the cochlea
What are the two theories for how we code the pitch of sound?
Place Theory and Frequency matching theory
Describe the Place Theory.
- Hair cells at a particular place on the basilar membrane respond most to a particular frequency of sound
- Best describes how we hear HIGH freq.
- Cannot describe how we hear a full range of sounds (ex. low sounds)
Describe the Frequency matching theory.
- Firing rate of an auditory nerve matches a sound wave’s frequency.
- Best describes how we hear LOW freq.
- Sometimes called the volley theory of frequency coding
the only sense that does not send its messages through the thalamus
axons from neurons in the nose have a synapse in the __________
connections from olfactory bulb spread diffusely through the brain, but are especially plentiful in the ________
Taste receptors are concentrated on the tongue (_____)
Receptors can only discriminate five sensations, what are they?
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami(fresh chicken/miso soup/cooked mushrooms)
How do we perceive different objects in the environment?
Taking raw sensation and adding meaning from our knowledge and experience of the world
Two ways that influence our perception?
Figured-Ground Organization is?
- Figure: part of visual field that has meaning
- Ground: visual field with less meaning. Edges determine the figure/ground border
Perceptual Grouping has to do with...?
Gestalt Laws of organization
What did Gestaltists argue?
that perceptions are not merely due to elementary sensations... the world is greater than the sum... because we add meaning
What did Gestalt ask?
What properties of stimuli cause us to group them together, into an object?
If things are close together, we group them together (people sitting close = friends)
tend to group things that are alike (group X’s & O’s, not 3 rows of differing O/X combos)
Tends to group things in terms of smooth, continued lines
we see a circle & triangle, turn 3 v’s into a single triangle
Common Religion & Connectedness are also two more.
How do we perceive a 3D world from a 2D image?
the projection on our retina
There are two types of depth cues, what are they?
Monocular and Binocular
Define Interposition (occlusion).
idea that something covers up something else; guy blocking sign = guy must be closer to me than sign
person who looks bigger is most likely closer than person farther away
Monocular Depth Cues
height in visual field:
= higher up = usually farther away
Monocular Depth Cues
(up close you can see leaves - far away tree is just green blob). refers to actual surfaces
Monocular Depth Cues
(lines converge to a vanishing point)
Monocular Depth Cues
(less clear something is - the farther away it must be) refers to objects
Monocular Depth Cues
Light & Shadow
Light & Shadow
Monocular Depth Cues
ability of the lens to change its shape and bend light rays so that objects are in focus. information about the muscle activity involved in accommodation serves as one cue helping to create perception of distance
a depth cue resulting from rotation of the eyes so that the image can be project on each retina (ball flying towards face)
A depth cue based on the difference between the retina images received by each eye
the constantly changing image on the retina, when in motion
The two Patterns of Optical Flow?
Looming and Stroboscopic Motion.
Rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the retina
Tendency to perceive movement when a series of still images appear, one at a time, in rapid succession (cartoon movies)
The perception of objects as constant in size, shape, brightness, etc... even when the retinal image changes
Top-down Perceptual Processing
- “knowledge-driven” perception
- Perception is influenced by knowledge, experience, etc.
- mental representations of what we expect, or what we know about a situation
- Strongly affects what we perceive
Bottom-up Perceptual Processing
- “data-driven” perception
- Perception based only on the features of the stimulus
- “feature detectors”
What is Learning?
- - Learning is the process through which experience modifies behavior and understanding.
- - Allow us to adapt to changing environments
How do we learn?
- experiencing events
- observing relationships between those events and
- noting the regularity in the world around them
Two types of non-associative learning?
Habituation and Sensitization
the process of adapting to stimuli that do not change
showing exaggerated responses to the unexpected, potentially threatening stimuli, especially if one is emotionally aroused at the time.
Associative Learning is also known as...
Why do you panic when you see the cops blue lights?
Why do you get nervous when you must speak in public?
These are learned responses from observing relationships between two things
More famous figures in psychology, scientist in Russia, interested in digestion, collected dog saliva and noted it was reflex when they smelled meat.
- Group 1: Dogs presented with meal; they salivated
- Group 2: Dogs presented with a musical tone; they did not salivate
- in second phase of study, he presented the tone and then the meat powderPaired tone, previously neutral stimulus, with a natural reflex, salivation
Would the dogs learn that the tone meant that food was coming?
- Third Phase of study: Tone was presented to the dogs but no food was presented
- what happened?
- They salivated
- First demonstration of associative learning (classical conditioning)
- Pavlov = classical conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS):
A stimulus that elicits a response without learning
Unconditioned response (UCR):
the automatic, unlearned reaction to a stimulus
Conditioned stimulus (CS):
A neutral stimulus that elicits the CR after learning
Conditioned Response (CR):
The response that the conditioned stimulus elicits
What happens to conditioned responses over time?
- Continued pairing of the CS with the UCS strengthens behavior
- In Pavlov’s experiment, the behavior was salivating (strengthening = more salivating)
What happens if I continually present the CS (tone) with no UCS (meat powder)?
- Eventually the CR will disappear.
- The tone no longer elicits salivation
What if after extinction, I present the tone, and then the meat powder, what happens?
Behavior quickly returns to normal, no long training required.
What if we presented to Pavlov’s dog:-A slightly different pitch?-A very different pitch?
-The closer the pitch was to the original CS pitch, the more saliva that was produced
Generalization must have limits...
We learn to differentiate between various stimuli; react to some, not others
Factors Influencing the Learning of Conditioned Responses
- Signal Strength
Some Applications of Classical Conditioning can lead to...
- the development of intense, irrational fears of objects or situations
- (i.e. phobias)
- Systematic desensitization uses classical conditioning principles to treat such fears
Is the organism learning associations between events it does not control (think reflexes)?
Is it learning associations between its own behavior and resulting events?
Operant = OPERAte, OPERator
Thorndike’s Puzzle Box
Cat pushing lever to get food
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
If a response made to a particular stimulus is followed by satisfaction, that response is more likely to occur the next time the stimulus is presen
Used a “puzzle box”
Skinner extended this idea by saying that an organism learns a response by
operating on the environment
Skinner is operant or instrumental?
Skinners primary aim was to analyze
how behavior is changed by its consequences
Used a “Skinner Box”
Rat and button he can push to get food pellet
A response/behavior that has some effect on the world
A stimulus even that increases the probability that the operant behavior will occur again
Stimulus that strengthens the response if it follows that response
An unpleasant stimulus that - if removed - strengthens the response that removes the stimulus (ex. pain)
Behavior: You put coins into a vending machine
Presentation of a pleasant or positive stimulus: You receive a cold can of soda
Frequency of behavior increases: You put coins in vending machines
Behavior: In the middle of a boring date, you say you have a headache
Presentation of a pleasant or positive stimulus: The date ends early
Frequency of behavior increases: You use the same tactic on future boring dates
Process of reinforcing successive approximation to target behavior
Events or stimuli that satisfy needs basic to survival (food and water)
Rewards that people or animals learn to like. (money)Sometimes called “conditioned reinforcers”
How often do you provide reinforcement?
- Fixed Ratio (FR): Fixed number of responses required for reinforcement
- Variable Ratio (VR): Number of responses required for reinforcement varies around an average (gambling slot machines)
- Fixed Interval (FI): Fixed set of time must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcement
- Variable Interval (VI): Time interval that must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcement varies
- The presentation of an aversive stimulus of the removal of a pleasant one following some behavior.
- Results in a decrease in the frequency of a response
Negative Reinforcement versus Punishment
- Negative Reinforcement: Strengthens behavior
- Punishment: Weakens behavior
Behavior: You touch a hot iron
Presentation of an unpleasant stimulus: Your hand is burned
Frequency of behavior decreases: You no longer touch hot irons
Drawbacks of Punishment
Does not “erase” an undesirable habit, merely suppresses it.Must be given immediately after undesirable behaviorCan become aggression, even abuse, when given in anger. Signals what is inappropriate behavior but does not specify correct alternative behavior (does not specify what the correct behavior is)
Cognitive Processes in learning
- Challenges to behavioral view of classical and operant conditioning
- Argued that learning may result from not only from automatic associations but also from mental processes
- Learning is more than just associations, reinforcements, and punishment.
Three groups of rats:
- A) Reinforced every time they successfully got out of maze.
- B) Never reinforced for getting out of maze
- C) Reinforced only after the 11th time.
- Accelerated after 11th time.
- Means that each group of rats had memory of maze in their head and realized when