biological psych 4-6

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awoods60
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176411
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biological psych 4-6
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2012-10-08 23:36:01
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biological psych
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biological psych
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  1. The axons conveying messages from the sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to the muscles
    Somatic Nervous System
  2. the brain and the spinal cord
    Central nervous system
  3. connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body
    peripheral nervous system
  4. controls the heart, intestines, and other organs
    autonomic nervous system
  5. toward the back
    dorsal
  6. toward the stomach
    ventral
  7. part of the CNS within the spinal column
    spinal cord
  8. one if first discoveries about the functions of the nervous system, the entering dorsal roots carry sensory info, and the exiting ventral roots carry motor info
  9. bell-magendie law
  10. clusters of neurons outside the spinal cord where sensory neurons are located
    dorsal root ganglia
  11. densely packed matter with cell bodies and dendrites
    gray matter
  12. matter consisting mostly of myelinated axons
    white matter
  13. network of nerves that prepare the organs for vigorous activity, consists of chains of ganglia just to the left ad right of the spinal cords central regions
    pathetic nervous system
  14. facilitates vegatative, nonemergency responses
    parasympathetic nervous system
  15. posterior part of the brain, concists of the medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum
    hindbrain
  16. medulla and pons, the midbrain and certain ceontral structures of the forebrain
    brainstem
  17. just above the spinal cord and can be regarded as an enlarged extensions of the spinal cord into the skull. controls vital reflexes
    medulla
  18. controls sensations from the head, muscle movements of the head, and much of the parasympathic output to the organs
    cranial nerves
  19. bridge between the two halfs of the brain
    pons
  20. has descending and ascending portions
    reticular formation
  21. sends axons to much of the forebrain, modifying the brains readiness to respond to stimuli
    raphe system
  22. large hindbrain structure with many deep folds. contributes to the control of movement, balance, and coordination
    cerebellum
  23. roof of midbrain
    tectum
  24. important for hearing
    inferior colliculus
  25. important for vision
    superior colliculus
  26. intermediate level of the midbrain 
    tengmentum
  27. gives rise to a dopamine-containing pathway that facilitates readiness for moovement
    substantia nigra
  28. most prominent part of the mammalian brain
    forebrain
  29. form border around the brain stem. important for motivation and emotion
    lympic system
  30. pair of structures in the center of the forbrain.  most sensory information goes here first. 
    thalamus
  31. small area near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus. has important behavior effects
    hypothalamus
  32. endocrine gland atached to the base of the hypothalamus by a stalk taht contains neurons,blood vessels, and cennective tissue. synthesizes hormones that the blood carries to organs throughout the body
    pituitary gland
  33. group of subcortical structures lateral to the thalamus, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and the globuspallidus. critical for learning and remembering how to do something
    basal ganglia
  34. receives input from the hypothalamus and basal ganglia and sends axons that release acetlycholine to widespread areas in the cerebral cortex. part of brain system for arousal, wakefulness, and atention
    nucleus basalis
  35. large structure between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, mostly toward the posterior of the forbrain. critical for strong memories
    hippocampus
  36. fluid filled channel in the center of the spinal cord
    central canal
  37. four fluid filled cavities within the brain
    ventricles
  38. clear fluid similar to blood plasma
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  39. membranes that surround the spinal cord
    meninges
  40. consists of the cellular layers on the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres
    cerebral cortex
  41. layers of cell bodies that are parallel to the surface of the cortex and separated from each other by layers of fibers
    laminae
  42. posterior end of the cortex, main target for visual information
    occipital lobe
  43. lies between the occipital lobe and ceontral sulcus
    parietal lobe
  44. primary somatosensory cortext, receives sensation from touch receptors, muscle-stretch receptors and joint receptors
    postcentral gyrus
  45. primary target for auditory information
    temporal lobe
  46. containing the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. anterior limit of the brain
    frontal lobe
  47. specialized for the control of fine movements
    precentral gyrus
  48. most anterior portion of the frontal lobe. integrates enormous amount of info
    frontal cortex
  49. question of how various brain areas produce a perception of a single object
    binding problem
  50. removal of brain area
    ablation
  51. damage
    lesion
  52. device for the precise placement of electrodes in the brain
    stereotaxic instrument
  53. application of an intense magnetic flied to a portion of the scalp, temporarily inactivates neurons below the magnet
    transcranial magnetic stimulation
  54. records electrical activity of the brain through electrodes attached to a scalp
    electroencephalograph
  55. recorded spontaneous brain activity or activity in response to a stimulus 
    evoked potential/responses
  56. measures the faint magnetic fields generated by brain activity
    magnetoencephalograph (MEG)
  57. provides a high-resolution image of activity in a living brain by recording the emission of radioactivity from injected chemicals
    positron-emission temography
  58. Gall's relating skull anatomy to behavior
    phrenology
  59. injects dye into the blood and the places the persons head into a CT scannerl and detectors are on both sides
    CT or CAT scan
  60. production of new cells
    proliferation
  61. forming axon and dendrites
    differentiates
  62. promotes survival and grown of the axon
    nerve growth factor
  63. programmed mechanism of cell death
    apoptosis
  64. condition marked by hyperactivity, impulsiveness, difficulty maintaining attention, varying degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects and facial abnormalities
    fetal alcohol syndrome
  65. sharp blow to the head resulting from an accident or assault that does not puncture the brain
    closed head injury
  66. temporary interruption of normal blood flow to a brain aread 
    stroke
  67. most common type of stroke. result of a blood clot or other obstruction in an artery
    ischemia
  68. result of ruptured artery
    hemorrhage
  69. drug that breaks up blood clots
    plasminogen activator
  70. decreased activity of surviving neurons after damage to other neurons
    diaschisis
  71. condition of enhanced response
    denervation supersensitivity
  72. continuing sensation of an amputated body part
    phantom limb
  73. limb that has lost its afferent imput
    deafferented
  74. place in eye with no receptors
    blind spot
  75. exits through back of eye
    optic nerve
  76. respond to faint light but are not useful in daylight because bring light bleaches them
    rods
  77. less active in dim light but are useful in bright light and essential for color vision
    cones
  78. chemicals that release energy when struck by light
    photopigments
  79. replacement of the red you had been staring at with green, green with red, yellow and blue with each other, and black and white with each other
    negative color afterimage
  80. theory that we perceive color in terms of opposites
    opponent precess theory
  81. theory proposed by edwin land: the cortex compares info from various parts of the retina to determine the brightness and color for each area
    retinex theory
  82. make inhibitory contact onto bipolar cells, which in turn make synapses onto amacrine cells and ganglion cells
    horizontal cells
  83. reduction of activity in one neuron by acivity in neighboring neurons
    lateral inhibition
  84. area in visual space that excites or inhibits it
    receptive field
  85. mostly in or near the fovea
    parvocellular neurons
  86. evenly distributed through the retina
    magnocelluar neurons
  87. have small bodies, throughout the retina
  88. koniocellular neurons
  89. has a receptive fiels with fixed excitatory and inhibitory zones
    simple cell
  90. cells that do not respond to the exact location of a stimulus
    complex cell
  91. stimulation from both sides
    binocular
  92. when experiences have a particular strong and enduring influences
    sensitive period
  93. discrepency between what the left and right eye see
    retinal disparity
  94. "lazy eye:
    strabismus
  95. blurring of vision for lines in one direction
    astigmatism
  96. processes information further and transmit addition info
    secondary visual cortex
  97. specialized for identifying and recognizing objects
    ventral stream
  98. respond to identifiable objects
    inferior temporal cortex
  99. visual lack of knowledge
    visual agnosia
  100. inability to recognize faces
    prosopagnosia
  101. ability to see objects but impairment at seeing whether they are moving or, if so, which direction and how fast
    motion blindness
  102. visual areas of the brain that decrease their activity during voluntary eye movement
    saccades

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