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Advanced Nutrition Fat Cholesterol Metabolism
Advanced Nutrition topic 6-1 (Fat and Cholesterol Metabolism)
What 5 things are considered to be simple lipids?
Fatty acids, Triacylglycerol, diacylglyerol, monoacylglycerol, and waxes
Which esters are considered waxes?
Sterol esters and nonsterol esters
What 3 things are considered compound lipids?
Phospholipids, glycolipids, and lipoproteins
What three things are considered phospholipids?
Phosphatidic acids, Plasmalogens, and Sphingomyelins
What type of lipid is cholesterol?
How is cholesterol obtained?
By hydrolysis of the lipids in the first two groups
What are phospholipids composed of?
A lipid portion and something different
Glycolipid have what attached to them?
What is the most basic type of unit that makes up the carbohydrate?
90-95% of what you eat is what?
Fatty acids are composed of what?
straight hydrocarbon chains with an acidic carboxylic acid group
For fatty acids chains, there are variations in what?
Length, Saturation, Position of unsaturation, Cis/Trans
Fatty acid with no double bonds is what type of acid?
Which group of fatty acids have no double bonds?
Saturated fatty acids
Which group of fatty acids have more than one double bond?
Unsaturated fatty acids
1.1 saturation is what type of fatty acid?
monosaturated fatty acid
More than one saturation is known as what type of fatty acid?
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
What products are saturated fatty acids found in?
Animal products, palm/coconut oil
What products are monounsaturated fatty acids found in?
olive oil, avocados, canola oil
What products are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in?
Fish, but mostly plant based such as soy, flax, corn, peanut
What is the difference between poly/monounsaturated and saturated?
Saturated is solid at room temp.
Which form (cis/trans) are more harmful to us and why?
Trans because they act like saturated fatty acids.
Fatty acids are composed of which two groups found on either end?
Methyl on one end and carboxylic acid on the other end.
Which is the simplest fatty acid?
Tropical oil based is more like which length fatty acid chain?
Most common (saturated) fatty acid chains are which?
Palmitic acid (c16), and Stearic acid (c18)
What are the two methods of fatty acid nomenclature?
Delta (triangle) system, and omega system.
Delta starts from which end?
carboxylic end (also takes into account all of the double bonds)
Omega starts from which end?
the methyl end (also
takes into account first double bond)
What are 5 saturated fatty acids?
Myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachididic acid, and lignoceric acid
what are 7 unsaturated fatty acids?
palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid
Which are the essential fatty acids?
Linoleic acid & alpha-linolenic acid
80% of fatty acids that are esterified into triacyglycerol will be what?
Majority of fatty acids that are esterified through glycerol in triacyglycerol are in the form of what?
What is a steroid nucleus?
Monohydroxy alcohols with 4-ring core structure
What is the form in which fat is stored in the tissues?
What is released when triacyglycerol is broken down?
Free fatty acids
Free fatty acids bind to what and travel around the body?
Cholesterol is the precursor for what?
Which type of cholesterol has one hydroxyl group?
How does cholesterol travel though the body in foods?
As an esterified form of cholesterol called cholesterol ester
Cholesterol ester is hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
What is the good form of cholesterol? Plant based or animal based?
Animal. Plants can't make cholesterol!
Cholesterol is needed for which type of steroids?
bile acids, sex hormones, adrenocortital hormones, and vitamin D
Glycerophosphatides has a polar head group that would be what type of group?
What is the core structure of Glycerophosphatides?
what is the building block for Glycerophosphatides?
Glycerophosphatides usually have what type of fatty acids in position 1 and 2?
saturated and unsaturated
What are the biological roles of phospholipids?
Cell membranes, source of compounds, cell functions
what makes the best barrier for membranes? why?
phospholipids. Because they interact with the lipid and cytoplasmic portions of the cell
Phosphatidylinositol is the pathway to what type of molecules?
What is formed by phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol?
Phosphatidylinositol in the membrane gets broken down by specific enzyme called what?
Once Phosphatidylinositol gets broken down by phospholipase C, it creates another molecule called what?
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate can get broken down into which two things?
diacylglycerol, or inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate
diacylglycerol can be used to activate what?
protein kinase C
inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate can be used to release what?
what is the 18-carbon amino alcohol which forms backbone?
sphingolipids (from sphingosine amino alcohol)
What are the three subclasses of sphingolipids?
sphingomyelins, cerebrosides, and gangliosides
The three subclasses of sphingolipids play important rolls in which four types of reactions?
membrane surfaces, changing structure of surfaces, raft like domains, and helping with response of cells to excrete biomin