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2012-10-09 02:35:37
Advanced Nutrition Fat Cholesterol Metabolism

Advanced Nutrition topic 6-1 (Fat and Cholesterol Metabolism)
Show Answers:

  1. What 5 things are considered to be simple lipids?
    Fatty acids, Triacylglycerol, diacylglyerol, monoacylglycerol, and waxes
  2. Which esters are considered waxes?
    Sterol esters and nonsterol esters
  3. What 3 things are considered compound lipids?
    Phospholipids, glycolipids, and lipoproteins
  4. What three things are considered phospholipids?
    Phosphatidic acids, Plasmalogens, and Sphingomyelins
  5. What type of lipid is cholesterol?
    Derived lipid
  6. How is cholesterol obtained?
    By hydrolysis of the lipids in the first two groups
  7. What are phospholipids composed of?
    A lipid portion and something different
  8. Glycolipid have what attached to them?
  9. What is the most basic type of unit that makes up the carbohydrate?
  10. 90-95% of what you eat is what?
  11. Fatty acids are composed of what?
    straight hydrocarbon chains with an acidic carboxylic acid group
  12. For fatty acids chains, there are variations in what?
    Length, Saturation, Position of unsaturation, Cis/Trans
  13. Fatty acid with no double bonds is what type of acid?
    Stearic Acid
  14. Which group of fatty acids have no double bonds?
    Saturated fatty acids
  15. Which group of fatty acids have more than one double bond?
    Unsaturated fatty acids
  16. 1.1 saturation is what type of fatty acid?
    monosaturated fatty acid
  17. More than one saturation is known as what type of fatty acid?
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids
  18. What products are saturated fatty acids found in?
    Animal products, palm/coconut oil
  19. What products are monounsaturated fatty acids found in?
    olive oil, avocados, canola oil
  20. What products are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in?
    Fish, but mostly plant based such as soy, flax, corn, peanut
  21. What is the difference between poly/monounsaturated and saturated?
    Saturated is solid at room temp.
  22. Which form (cis/trans) are more harmful to us and why?
    Trans because they act like saturated fatty acids.
  23. Fatty acids are composed of which two groups found on either end?
    Methyl on one end and carboxylic acid on the other end.
  24. Which is the simplest fatty acid?
    Acetic acid
  25. Tropical oil based is more like which length fatty acid chain?
    Middle length
  26. Most common (saturated) fatty acid chains are which?
    Palmitic acid (c16), and Stearic acid (c18)
  27. What are the two methods of fatty acid nomenclature?
    Delta (triangle) system, and omega system.
  28. Delta starts from which end?
    carboxylic end (also takes into account all of the double bonds)
  29. Omega starts from which end?
    the methyl end (also only takes into account first double bond)
  30. What are 5 saturated fatty acids?
    Myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachididic acid, and lignoceric acid
  31. what are 7 unsaturated fatty acids?
    palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid
  32. Which are the essential fatty acids?
    Linoleic acid & alpha-linolenic acid
  33. 80% of fatty acids that are esterified into triacyglycerol will be what?
  34. Majority of fatty acids that are esterified through glycerol in triacyglycerol are in the form of what?
    Olayic acid
  35. What is a steroid nucleus?
    Monohydroxy alcohols with 4-ring core structure
  36. What is the form in which fat is stored in the tissues?
  37. What is released when triacyglycerol is broken down?
    Free fatty acids
  38. Free fatty acids bind to what and travel around the body?
  39. Cholesterol is the precursor for what?
  40. Which type of cholesterol has one hydroxyl group?
    Free cholesterol
  41. How does cholesterol travel though the body in foods?
    As an esterified form of cholesterol called cholesterol ester
  42. Cholesterol ester is hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
  43. What is the good form of cholesterol? Plant based or animal based?
    Animal. Plants can't make cholesterol!
  44. Cholesterol is needed for which type of steroids?
    bile acids, sex hormones, adrenocortital hormones, and vitamin D
  45. Glycerophosphatides has a polar head group that would be what type of group?
    phosphate group
  46. What is the core structure of Glycerophosphatides?
  47. what is the building block for Glycerophosphatides?
    Phosphatidic acid
  48. Glycerophosphatides usually have what type of fatty acids in position 1 and 2?
    saturated and unsaturated
  49. What are the biological roles of phospholipids?
    Cell membranes, source of compounds, cell functions
  50. what makes the best barrier for membranes? why?
    phospholipids. Because they interact with the lipid and cytoplasmic portions of the cell
  51. Phosphatidylinositol is the pathway to what type of molecules?
    signal transducing
  52. What is formed by phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol?
  53. Phosphatidylinositol in the membrane gets broken down by specific enzyme called what?
    phospholipase C
  54. Once Phosphatidylinositol gets broken down by phospholipase C, it creates another molecule called what?
  55. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate can get broken down into which two things?
    diacylglycerol, or inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate
  56. diacylglycerol can be used to activate what?
    protein kinase C
  57. inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate can be used to release what?
    intracellular Ca2+
  58. what is the 18-carbon amino alcohol which forms backbone?
    sphingolipids (from sphingosine amino alcohol)
  59. What are the three subclasses of sphingolipids?
    sphingomyelins, cerebrosides, and gangliosides
  60. The three subclasses of sphingolipids play important rolls in which four types of reactions?
    membrane surfaces, changing structure of surfaces, raft like domains, and helping with response of cells to excrete biomin