Reward: obtaining compliance by promising or granting rewards
Coercive: obtaining compliance through threatening or actual punishment (can only obtain reward or coercive through legitimate power)
Legitimate: obtaining compliance through formal authority ("do it, I'm your boss")
Expert: obtaining compliance through ones knowledge or information
Referent: obtaining compliance through charisma(Expert and referent are personal forms of power/ more influence)
Dependency Postulate (Emerson)
A (boss) B (employee) as the employee you have some power over your boss. The more dependent B is on A the more power A has over B.-importance (worst case scenario/ oh well/ not worth it) scarcity (if i lose this job ill get another one) substitutability (worst case I'll get $ from parents)
releasing the power that employees in the organization already have
sharing power with employees
Influence tactics SOFT
Rational persuasion- trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts.
Inspirational appeals- Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others emotions, ideals, or values
Consultations- Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.
Integration- getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise.
Personal appeals- Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request.
Influence Tacticts HARD
Exchange- Making explicit or implied promises and trading favors.
Coalition tactics- Getting others to support your efforts to persuade someone.
Pressure- Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats.
Legitimating tactics- Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or explicit or implied support from superiors.
Use legitimate, reward and coercive power bases-managers not leaders
carrot stick approach- Put a carrot in front of them and kick them behind. "Movers"
Referent power baseInfluencing change in employees behaviors and personality
Four I’s (part of transformational)
individual consideration (perscriptive)
a. Four leader behaviors which lead to goal
i. Directive – no autonomy, full leader control, micro-managers
ii. Supportive – leader keeps control, but seeks opinions, coaching
iii. Participative – leader delegates control, team-oriented iv. Achievement-oriented – full autonomy, achievement metrics, delegating
b. Contingency factors – variables that alter the effectiveness of leader behaviors
i. Employee characteristics
ii. Environmental factors
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Focuses on the quality of relationship between leader and follower
-Vivid description: what it’s going to be like to achieve the BHAG
- “We’ve arrived syndrome”, the worth syndrome, you reach the BHAG and don’t have another BHAG
-Basic dynamics of visionary companies: preserve core and stimulate progress
1% Vision and 99% alignment, when vision comes into place so does alignment, vision should be good for at least a decade
a mix of people from the company responsible for stating the companies core values, the best of the best.
Decision Making Model
Step 1 - Identify the problem or opportunity
Step 2- Gather internal evidence or data about the problem, and evaluate its relevance and validity.
Step 3- Gather external evidence about the problem from published research
Step 4- Gather views from stakeholders affected by decision and consider ethical implications.
Step 5 - Integrate and critically appraise all data and then make a decision.
Job satisfaction was found with high levels of responsibility, recognition, achievement, characteristics of the work, and advancement. He calls these motivators. Each associated with strong effort and good performance.
Dissatisfaction factors such as company policy, administration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal relations with supervisors, working conditions.
modifying a job so that an employee has the opportunity to experience achievement, responsibility, advancement, recognition, and stimulating work through vertical loading. Vertical loading: giving more autonomy and responsibility.