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4 Contingency factors to power bases
Power bases (French & Ravens)(5 bases of power)
- Reward: obtaining compliance by promising or granting rewards
- Coercive: obtaining compliance through threatening or actual punishment (can only obtain reward or coercive through legitimate power)
- Legitimate: obtaining compliance through formal authority ("do it, I'm your boss")
- Expert: obtaining compliance through ones knowledge or information
- Referent: obtaining compliance through charisma(Expert and referent are personal forms of power/ more influence)
Dependency Postulate (Emerson)
A (boss) B (employee) as the employee you have some power over your boss. The more dependent B is on A the more power A has over B.-importance (worst case scenario/ oh well/ not worth it) scarcity (if i lose this job ill get another one) substitutability (worst case I'll get $ from parents)
releasing the power that employees in the organization already have
sharing power with employees
Influence tactics SOFT
- Rational persuasion- trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts.
- Inspirational appeals- Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others emotions, ideals, or values
- Consultations- Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.
- Integration- getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise.
- Personal appeals- Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request.
Influence Tacticts HARD
- Exchange- Making explicit or implied promises and trading favors.
- Coalition tactics- Getting others to support your efforts to persuade someone.
- Pressure- Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats.
- Legitimating tactics- Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or explicit or implied support from superiors.
Use legitimate, reward and coercive power bases-managers not leaders
carrot stick approach- Put a carrot in front of them and kick them behind. "Movers"
Referent power baseInfluencing change in employees behaviors and personality
Four I’s (part of transformational)
- Inspirational appeal
- intellectual influence
- idealized influence
- individual consideration (perscriptive)
- a. Four leader behaviors which lead to goal
- i. Directive – no autonomy, full leader control, micro-managers
- ii. Supportive – leader keeps control, but seeks opinions, coaching
- iii. Participative – leader delegates control, team-oriented iv. Achievement-oriented – full autonomy, achievement metrics, delegating
- b. Contingency factors – variables that alter the effectiveness of leader behaviors
- i. Employee characteristics
- ii. Environmental factors
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Focuses on the quality of relationship between leader and follower
Emotional intelligence article* Goldmans- dimensions
manage oneself and one’s relationships in mature and constructive ways.
Cotter article* Managers vs. Leaders
3 steps to accomplishing tasks (deciding what needs to be done, creating a network of people to accomplish the task, making sure the job gets done)
- Planning & budgeting
- Organizinging & staffing
- Controlling & problem solving
- Setting a direction
- Aligning people
- Motivate & inspire-managers cope with complexity-leaders cope with change
Vrooms Expectancy theory*
- People are motivated to do things because of the perceived outcomes
- -motivation is all about the amount of effort in certain situations/tasks
- your level of effort leads to a certain level of performance
- E->P P->O
- Expectancy link (effort to performance)
- Instrumentality (performance to outcome) ( i.e. how realistic)
- After outcome it's valence
6 expectancy trait deal:
- Previous success
- Good material and equipment
the perception that resources and rewards are distributed fairly
the perceived fairness of the processes and procedures used to make decisions process to get there was fair
Equity Theory (5)
- “Model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships.”
- i. Equitable situation – balanced relationship
- ii. Negative situation – Inputs outweighed by outputs. Receiving more than felt deserved.
- iii. Positive situation – Output weighs less than input. Receiving less than felt deserved.
- Over rewarded raise inputs Under rewards less effort, raise, change comparison other
want it to be fair-an individual’s preferences for, tolerances for, and reactions to each of the equitable situationsBenevolentence under rewarded and ok
Goal setting theory
Managment by objective
you set goals with supervisor involves participation
specific and timely, helps achieve difficult goals
outlines activities or tasks to complete goals
Smart goal stands for:
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-oriented, Timely
Job Design (Job Characteristics Model)
- Five core job dimensions
- i. Skill variety
- ii. Task Identity
- iii. Task Significance
- iv. Autonomy
- v. Feedbackb.
- Critical Psychological States
- i. Experienced meaningfulness of work ii. responsibility for work
- iii. knowledge of work results
- c. Personal and Work Outcomes
- i. High internal motivation ii. High quality performance
- iii. High satisfaction
- iv. Low turnover and absenteeism
Dan Pink video questions
Give employees enough extrinsic motivation (money) to where it’s no longer an issue. Then they can be intrinsically motivated
Autonomy-desire to be self motivated
Mastery-doing something because you'll get better at it. Playing instruments on the weekend
Purpose-doing something for a greater cause
Building A Vision
- Core purpose + core values = success
- -Core purpose = reason for being, to guide and inspire, not a goal
- -Core values = 3-5 values, intrinsic values, no right set of core values.
- Quality, respect, and customer service are not core values because everyone believes in those. These are specific.
- -Vision: most overused and least understood
- -Vision = 2 parts: Core ideology & Envisioned Future
Core Ideology (core values & core purpose)
What the company stands for -why the company exists -it’s the identity, comes from inspiration
Envisioned Future “creative process” (BHAG & Vivid description)
- What the company wants to become
- -What the company wants to achieve
- -BHAG- Big 10-30 yr goals, clear finish line
- -Vivid description: what it’s going to be like to achieve the BHAG
- - “We’ve arrived syndrome”, the worth syndrome, you reach the BHAG and don’t have another BHAG
- -Basic dynamics of visionary companies: preserve core and stimulate progress
- 1% Vision and 99% alignment, when vision comes into place so does alignment, vision should be good for at least a decade
a mix of people from the company responsible for stating the companies core values, the best of the best.
Decision Making Model
- Step 1 - Identify the problem or opportunity
- Step 2- Gather internal evidence or data about the problem, and evaluate its relevance and validity.
- Step 3- Gather external evidence about the problem from published research
- Step 4- Gather views from stakeholders affected by decision and consider ethical implications.
- Step 5 - Integrate and critically appraise all data and then make a decision.
Job satisfaction was found with high levels of responsibility, recognition, achievement, characteristics of the work, and advancement. He calls these motivators. Each associated with strong effort and good performance.
Dissatisfaction factors such as company policy, administration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal relations with supervisors, working conditions.
modifying a job so that an employee has the opportunity to experience achievement, responsibility, advancement, recognition, and stimulating work through vertical loading. Vertical loading: giving more autonomy and responsibility.