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this is the superficial layer of the kidney. it is shaded dark brown due to the dense sustem of blood vessels that aid in the filtering of blood in the kidney.
this is the inner layer of the kidney
these are a series of darker, conical regions found in the renal medulla. the majority of the tubules of the nephrons occur in these regions.
these are inward extensions of the renal cortex that separate the renal pyraimids
these are the tips at the base of the reanl pyramids which project inot a minor calyx. these structres drain urine from the pyramids into the minor calyxes
a cupe shaped cavity at the base of the renal papilla, which drains urine from kthe renal papillae into the major calyxes
the cavity formed by the convergence of several minor calyces, which drain ruine from the minor calyxes into the renal pelvis
a funnel shaped cavity formed by the convergence of the major calyxes, which collects urine from the major calyces and joins the ureter.
a tube which conducts urine from the renal pwlvis to the urnary bladder.
the connective tissue covering the external surface of the kidney
the vessesl which carries ocygenated blood from the aorta to the kidney to be filtered.
the vessel which carries unoxygenated and filtered blood from the kidney to the inferior vena cava
urine is normally sterile, therfore, the presence of white blood cells in the urine suggests an infection in the urinaary tract
the presence of this compound indicates a probable urinary tract infection m beacuse nitrite is formed when bacteria in the urine change nitrate to nitrite
ph is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the urine, many factors sucah as drugs, diet, time of day, and health affect the ph of urine
- this test for the presence of the protein, alubumin. proteins are large molecules and are not normally filtered by the kidney, but those that are , are reabsorbed, the presence of porteins in the urine has many causes, both acute and chroince
- acute causes may include severe emotinal stress, strenuous exersice, or feaver,
- chronic causes may include diabetes, malaria, herat disease, high blood pressure, sicle acell anemia, or even prenacney
usually all glucose in the filtrate is reabsorbed by the kidney. however, very high glucose levels can indicate diabetes mellitus, kidney damage, or stress.
- ketones are produced when fat is metabolized for energy. a large amount of ketones in the urine may indicates a low carbohydrate diet, starvation, or diabetic ketoacidosis.
- ketoacidosis is a life threatening chemical imbalance which occurs in people with diabetes. it is caused when cells do not get enough glucose to meet energetic demands
this compound forms from the breakdown of bilrubin. it is eliminated from the body through the bile, into the digestive tract. usually only small amounts of uroblinogen are found in urine. the presence of uroblinogen in ht urine may indicate liver damage or blockage of the flow of bile from the gallbladder.
this compound is formed from the breakdown of red blood cells. it is not nor ally found in urine. its presence may indicate liver damage, or blockage of the flow of bile from the gallbladder.
red blood cells are normally not filtered by the kidney because they are too large to pass through th gloomerulus. the presence of rebcs in the urine indicates damage to the kidney caused by inflammation, kidney stones, kidney disease, or blunt trauma. menstruating females often show a positive result of this test, although the cells are not coming from the urinary system.
transitonal epithelial cells
these are rough cuboidal cells which slough off from the lining of the ureters, urinary bladder, and renal pelvis of kidneys
squamous epithelial cells
these are flat nucleated cells which slough off from the lining of the urethra
the red blood cells found in urine. the presence of which may indicate some kind of kidney damage.
the nucleated white blood cells the presnce of which may indicate a urinary tract infection
a precipitate of red blood cells in the shape of a tubule or dut.
a precipitate of white blood cells in the shape of a tubule or duct
a precipitate of cels which remained in the duct but degenerated into a granular cast
a cat composed of rbsc, whbcs, and oval fat droplets
greenish crystal s usually in the shape of an octahedron ( a polygon with eight sides)
yellow to reddish brown crystals, highly polymorphic in shape
these crystals have various forms, including six to eight sided prisms appearing in single or a rosette shapes
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