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What is a communitcation process?
What are its seven elements?
The communication process is a seven element process, that you go through every speech.
The seven elements are: speaker, message (content), channel (how), listener (adience), feedback (verbal/nonverbal), interferience (internal/external), situation (when and where).
How do you deal with nerviousness?
- At the beginning of any speech your body extra adrenaline, we often mistake this energy as nerviousness. We can use this in many ways.
- -acquire speaking experience. with more experience you gain confidence.
- -Prepare each minute of speaking deserves 1-2 hours of prep time. professional speech consultants estimate that prepartion can reduce stage fright by 75%
- -Think Positive: for each negative thought you should counter with 5 positive ones.
- - Power of visualization. picture yourself giving a successful presentation, mental reharsel is imperitative.
- - Know nerviousness is not visible.
- - Dont expect perfection. the audience does not know what you are going to say only what they hear you say.
What are similarities between public speaking and everyday communcation?
- -Organize your ideas/thoughts.
- -Tailer your message to the audience. keep in mind the vocabulary for type of audience.
- -Tell your speech for maxium impact. like when your telling a joke.
- -Adapt to listener feedback. be aware of there verbal, facial, physical reactions.
What is ethnocentrism?
How do you aviod it?
Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own group/culture is supior to other groups/culture.
Show respect for the cultures/people, you address, give every speak the same courtesy and attentiveness you would like.
What is the defintion of ethics?
Guidelines for ethical speech making?
- Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with issuses of right or wrong in human affairs. heres how to aviod it.
- -make sure your goals are ethically sound. your first responsibility is to ask whether your goals are ethical.
- -be fully prepared for each speech. you have a responsibility to prepare fully so as not to communicate wrong or misleading information.
- -be honest in what you say.
- -avoid name calling and other forms of abusive language.
- -but principles into practice. you have to ethical all the time, not only when its convient.
What is plagiarism?
What are the four types of plagiarism?
How do you avoid it?
- Plagiarism is presenting another persons language/ideas as your own.
- -Global Plagiarism is stealing your speech entirely from another source and playing it as your own.
- -Patchwork Plagiarism is when you steal ideas/language from 2-3 sources and passing it as your own.
- -Incremental Plagiarism is when the speaker fails to give credit for particular parts/incrementes.
- -Paraphrasing Plagiarism is when you restate/summerize an authers ideas into ones own words.
you can avoid plagiarism by giving yourself plenty of time, consult a large number of resources in your research (+3) give credit for quotations/phrases.
What are the guidelines ethical listening?
- - be courtesy and attentive. give the speaker the same courtesy and attention you want from them. be conscious, give facial feedback, maintain eye contact, exetc.
- - avoid prejugding the speaker
- - maintain the free and open expression of ideas.
What are the causes of poor listening?
- - not concentreting also known as spare "brain time" ( most people talk 120 wpm and process 400-800 wpm)
- - listening too hard. we try to listen to every word and often miss the main point.
- - jumping to conclusions, putting words into a speakers mouth.
- - focusing on delivary and personal experience. becoming distracted with the way they speak or look.
How to focus your listening?
- - take listening seriously. dont give into mental/physical distractions, focus on what the speaker says, dont jump to conclusions, etc.
- - be an active listener. give your undivided attention to the speaker in a genuine effort to understand there main point of view.
- - resit distractions. whenever your have distractions (internal/exteranl) make a conscious effort to pull your mind back to what the speaker is saying.
- - dont be diverted by appearance of delivery. be willing to set aside preconceived jugdements on looks or manner of speech.
- - suspend jugdement. hear the speaker out before reaching a final jugdement.
Steps to developing note-taking skills?
use the key word outline, an outline that briefly notes a speakers main points and supporting evidience, and keep the notes short. seperate main points from subpoints and evidience.
What is a specific purpose?
What are 5 tips to creating a specific purpose?
a specific purpose is a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish (to inform, persuade, entertain)
- - write the purpose statement as a infinitive phrase not a fragment.
- - dont state as a question.
- - avoid figurative language.
- - limit your purpose statement to one distinct purpose.
- - make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or general
What is the central idea?
What are the guidelines for central idea?
- The central idea is a one-sentence that sums up the major ideas of a speech (thesis)
- - What you want your audience to remember after the speech
- the guidelines for the central idea are:
- - should be expressed in a full sentence
- - should not be in the form of a question
- - should avoid figurative language
- - should not be vague or overly general.
What is the difference between a specific purpose and a general purpose?
What is the differience between a specific purpose statement and the central idea?
the specific purpose statement and the central idea is the same (take out the "to inform" from the specific purpose statement.
- general purpose= to inform/persuade/entertain my audience..
- - very broad
- specific purpose= to inform my audience about...
- - very specific
What are the different ways to brainstorm?
How is it usefull?
- -personal inventory. making an inventory of experiences, hobbie, skills, beliefs, etc. froms this comes a general subject area that you can fashion a specifci topic from.
- -clustering. take a sheet of paper divide it into 9 columns and write the first 5-6 items that come to mind for each topic.
- -reference search. browse through and encyclopedia limiting youself to a letter, choosing specific words that can good topics.
- -internet search. start with the dozen or so categories clicking on the category that your interested in and refining your speech by each subcategory you click on.
brainstorming helps you think of several different topics fairly quickly by giving you many options.
What is audience-centeredness?
What are its uses?
audience-centeredness means keeping the audience in mind at every step of speech preperation and presentation.
this will help you select a topic, organize your speech, and keep your audience in mind througout speech prep.
What is demographic audience analysis?
What are factors of demographic analysis?
demographic analysis means identifing the general demographic factors (age,sex,etc) of your audience and helps you gage the importance of those features to your speaking situation. this can also include stero-typing. demographic analysis gives you important clues about your audience to help you better prepare for your speech.
What is situational audience analysis and it's factors?
situational audience analysis idenifys traits of the audience unque to speaking situation at hand. these include size of the audience, physical setting, dispostion of audience to subject, speaker and occation.
What is idenifcation?
What is egocentrism?
identification is the process in which speakers create a bond with the audience by emphasing common values, goals, experiences.
egocentrism is a tendecy of people to be conserned of topics most meaningful to them
Define virtual library?
virtual library is a search engine that combines internet technology with traditional library methods of catologing and assessing data.
How to evaluate internet documents?
- - the auther of the web document you are assessing clearly identified? if so what are his/her identifications, are his/her data in opinions unbaised.
- - soponsorship. is this auther recieving compensation of any kind for this document.
- - recency. check the date of the document the year should be no more than 5 yrs. old maxium. since it was last updated.
Tips for searching the internet?
be very defined with your key words on the search engine.
1. supporting materials
3. brief examples
4. extended examples
5. hypothetical examples
8. expert testimony
9. peer testimony
10. direct quotation
11. quoting out of context
- 1. materials used to support speakers main ideas
- 2. specific case used illustrate/represent group of people/ideas/conditions/experiencec, etc.
- 3. specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
- 4. a story narrative or anecdote developed at some length to demostrate a point.
- 5. example that describes an imaginary fictional situation
- 6. numerical data
- 7. quotations/paraphases used to support a point
- 8. testimony from people who are recognized experts in there fields
- 9. testimony from ordinary people with first hand experience
- 10. testimony that is presented word for word
- 11. to restate a sources ideas in ones own words.
- 12. quoting a statement in a way to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it.
Tips for organizational patterns of main points
- - chronological order, organizing speech in chronological time order
- - spatial order, step by step or side by side organization.
- - casual order, organizing main points in a cause-effect order
- - problem-solution order, first point shows a problem and second main point presents a solution.
- - topical order, dividing the speech topic into subtopics that becomes a main point in a speech.
Tips for preparing a main points
- - keep main points seperate. each main point should be clearly independent of the others
- - try to use the same pattern of wording for main points.. parallel wording
- - balance the amount of time, all main points should have a balanced amount of time.
What are transitions?
How do you make and effective transition statement?
a transition is a word or phrase the indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another.
the transition should state both the idea the speaker weaving and the idea he/she is coming up to.
What are the four objectives of the introduction?
What are 5 tips for preparing an introduction?
- - get attention and interest (attention getter)
- - reveal the topic
- - establish credibility and good will
- - preview the body of speech
- - keep the intro brief (10-20% of speech)
- - be on look out for introduction material and attention getters
- - be creative with your introduction
- -dont worry about exact wording until you prepare your body of speech
- - work out introduction in detail. practice, practice, practice
- - note card
What are the 2 major functions of the conclusion?
- - to signal the end of the speech (closing statement)
- - reinforce the thesis, reinforce central idea
Why should you create an outline?
writing an outline means putting your speech together.. deciding what you will say, how you will organize the main points and say in the conclusion.
What are the guidelines for the preperation outline?
- - state the specific purpose of your speech
- - identify the thesis, or central idea
- - label the into, body and conclusion
- - use constant pattern symbolization and identation.
- - state main points and subpoints in full sentences
- - label trasitions, internal summaries and internal previews.
- - attach bibliography
- - give speech a title, if desired