Metabolism

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Author:
Naheer
ID:
176515
Filename:
Metabolism
Updated:
2012-10-10 18:16:28
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KNES 323
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Description:
chapter 4
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  1. first and second law of thermodynamics
    • first: total amount of energy constant
    • second: processes move from state of order to disorder
  2. chemical work
    making and breaking of chemical bonds
  3. Transport work
    moving ions, molecules and larger particles 
  4. mechanical work
    movement
  5. endergonic reaction
    take in energy
  6. exergonic reaction
    release energy
  7. if reactant > products reaction goes ____ 
    if products > reactants reaction goes ______
    • forward
    • backwards
  8. enzymes
    • lower activation energy
    • act as catalyst
  9. explain substrate, enzyme, and active site
    • substrate ractant enzyme acts on
    • enzyme binds to substrate
    • active site is where substrate binds
  10. allosteric control
    activate or inhibit enzyme activity
  11. in feedback end product used as ______
    • inhibitor 
    • good way to make sure not to much end product
  12. explain cofactors and coenzymes
    • cofactors  bind to protein and activates it
    • ex- zinc, Mg, Fe
    • Coenzymes are organic cofactors ( shuttle for ATP production)
    • ex- NAD+, FADH
    •        -H+ shuttles
  13. Anabolic and Catabolic pathways
    • Anabolic build molecules, consume energy
    • Catabolic break down complex molecules, release energy
  14. when is energy released from ATP?
    phosphate bond is broken
  15. what are four things included in metabolism?
    • 1. control enzyme concentrations
    • 2. Allosteric and covalent modulators
    • 3. diff enymes for reversible reactions
    • 4. contain enzymes in organelles
  16. 3 stages of respiration
    • glycolysis
    • kreb's( TCA cycle)
    • electron transport system
  17. explain glycolysis
    • occur in cytosol
    • break glucose to pyruvate
    • 1.phosphate added to glucose 
    • 2. glucose isomer made
    • 3. phosphate group added 
    • 4. glucose split onto 2 3-C molecules
    • 5. conversion b/w isomers
    • 6.transfer of electrons and H+ to NAD+
    • exergonic, add 2 phosphate
    • 7. make ATP twice
    • 8. relocate last phosphate
    • 9. make double bond
    • 10. transfer P- make ATP
    • end product = 2 pyruvate, 2ATP, 2 NADH
  18. TCA Cycle
    • in mitochondria
    • pyruvate become acetyl CoA
    • aerobic respiration
    • 1. lose CO2
    • 2.load up FADH2 and NADH which contain high energy electrons (for ETC)
    • 3.little ATP produced here
  19. oxidative phosphorylation
    uses energy relased from oxidation of nutrients for ATP production

    • chemiosmsis  electron transport with ATP Synthesis
    • NADH & FADH2 
    • -donate electron to ETC
    • -power ATP synthesis
  20. ETC
    • -electrons from NADH and FADH2 lose energy in several steps
    • - end of chain electrons passed to oxygen forming water
    • -casues H+ to move to intermembrane
    • 1. electrons passed on ETC from NADH to oygen.  Three sites where H+ moved into intermembrane space
    • 2. FADH donate electron to ETC there are two sites where H+ moves from amtrix to intermembrane space
    • 3. high concentration of H+ in intermembrane can make ATP when it goes through ATP synthase down concentration gradient
  21. C6H12O2 + O2 + ADP--->
    CO2 + H2O + ATP
  22. 1 glucose molecule yields ____ ATP
    • 38
    • oxygen required for process ( aerobic) 
  23. Ferementation
    • if no O2 available make ATP anaerobically
    • involves :
    • glycolysis 
    • processes that regenerate NAD+
  24. Alchohol Feremntation
    • pyruvate converted to ethanol
    • release CO2
    • irreversible
  25. Lacatate Fermentation
    • convert pyruvate to lactic acid
    • reform NAD+ for glycolysis ( more ATP formed)
    • Reversible
    • ex: exercise
  26. phosphofructokinase
    • ATP turns off this ands up shutting everything down
    • activate it then everything activated
  27. Sources of fuel:
    • Fats
    • Protein
  28. Fats
    • consist of glycerol and fatty acids
    • glycerol--> glycolysis
    • fatty acids--> Beta oxidation
    • -Acetyl CoA enters Kreb's cycle
    • lots of ATP
  29. Proteins
    • broken down to amino acids
    • Amino acids--> Keto acids
    • enters TCA cycle/ Acetyl CoA
    • Variable ATP
    • proteins last choice
    • burn through sugar first, then B oxiation, then protein
  30. glycogenolysis
    • Glycogen
    • storage in form of glucose in liver and skeletal muscle
    • converted to glucose or glucose 6 phosphate

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