PSY 220 Ch. 7 Asking People About Themselves: Survey Research

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ralejo
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PSY 220 Ch. 7 Asking People About Themselves: Survey Research
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2012-10-10 17:55:04
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Survey Research PSY 220 Needham
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Survey Research PSY 220 Needham
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  1. Computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI)
    The interviewer's questions are prompted on the computer screen, and the data are entered directly into the computer for analysis
  2. Closed-ended question
    A limited number of response alternative are given.
  3. Cluster sampling
    • A probability sampling method in which existing groups, or geogrphic areas called clusters, are identified.
    • Clusters are randomly sampled and tehn everyone in the selected clusters participates in the study.
  4. Confidence interval
    An interval of values within which there is a given level of confidence where the population value lies.
  5. Face-to-face interview
    Require that the interviewer and respondent meet to conduct the interview
  6. Focus group
    An interview with a group of about 6 to 10 individuals brought together for a period of usually 2-3 hours.
  7. Graphic rating scale
    Requires a mark along a continguous 100-millimeter line that is anchored with descriptions at each end.
  8. Haphazard (convenince) sampling
    • Selecting subjects¬†in a haphazard manner usually on the basis on the availability and not with regard to having a representative sample of the population
    • A type of nonprobability sampling
  9. Internet survey
    • A questionnaire for administration on the Internet
    • Open- and closed-ended questions can be presented
  10. Interviewer bias
    Intentional or unintentional influence exerted by the interviewer in wuch a way that the actual or interpreted behavior of respondents is consistent with the interviewers expectations.
  11. Mail survey
    • Surveys can be mailed to individuals at a home or business adress
    • Potential low response rates
  12. Nonprobability sampling
    Type of sampling procedure in which one cannot specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample.
  13. Open-ended questions
    Respondent are free to answer in any ways they like.
  14. Panel study
    Research in which the same sample of subjects is studied at two or more points in time usually to assess changes that occur in time.
  15. Population
    The defined group of individuals from which a sample is drawn.
  16. Probablity sampling
    Type of sampling procedure in which one is able to specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample.
  17. Purposive sampling
    A type of haphazard sample conducted to predetermine types of individuals for the sample.
  18. Quota sampling
    • A sampling procedure in which the samples chosen to reflect the numerical composition in various subgroups in the population
    • A haphazard sampling technique is used to obtain the sample.
  19. Random sample
    A sampling made to reduce bias.
  20. Rating scale
    Ask people to provide "how much" judgments on any number of dimensions: amount of agreement, liking, or confidence, for example.
  21. Response rate
    A percentage of people selected for a sample who actually completed a survey
  22. Response set
    A pattern of response to question on a self-report measure that is not related to the content of the questions
  23. Sampling
    The process of choosing members of the population to be included in a sample
  24. Sampling error
    The confidence interval gives you information about the likely amount of the error
  25. Sampling frame
    The individuals or clusters of individuals in a population who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample.
  26. Semantic differential scale
    Respondents rate any concept—persons, objects, behaviors, ideas—on a series of bipolar adjectives using 7-point scales
  27. Simple random sampling
    A sampling procedure in which each member of the population (we could leave) has equal probability of being included in the sample.
  28. Stratified Random sampling
    Population is divided into subgroups (strata) and random sampling techniques are then used to select sample members from each stratum.
  29. Survey research
    • Employs questionnaires and interviews to ask people to provide information about themselves:
    • Their attitudes and beliefs
    • Demographics (age, gender, income, marital status, and so on)
    • Past or intended future behaviors
  30. Telephone interview
    • Less expensive
    • Allow data to be collected relatively quickly
    • Computerized telephone survey techniques lower the cose of telephone surveys by reducing labor and data analysis costs
  31. Yea-saying and Nay-saying
    A respondent employs a response set to agree or disagree with all the questions
  32. Discuss reasons for conducting survey research.
    • Information of people:
    • Their attitudes and beliefs
    • Demographics (age, gender, income, marital status, and so on)
    • Part or intended future behaviors
  33. Indentify factors to consider when writing questions for interviews and questionnaires, including defining research objectives and question wording.
    • Research Objectives
    • What does he or she wish to know the survey questions must be tied to the research questions that are being addressed
    • Types of Survey Questions:
    • Attitudes and beliefs
    • Facts and demographics
    • Behaviors

    • Question Wording
    • Avoids double-barreled questions, loaded questions, negative wording, and yea- or nay-saying.
    • They should be simple
  34. Describe different ways to construct questionnaire responses included closed-ended question, open-ended questions, and rating scales.
    • Closed-Ended Question
    • Limited number of responses are given

    • Open-Ended Question
    • Participants are able to answer how they want

    • Rating Scales
    • Ask people to provide "how much" judgements on any number of dimensions such as amounts of agreement, liking, or confidence
  35. Compare the two ways to administer surveys: written questionnaires, oral interviews.
    Written Questionnaires and Oral Interviews:
  36. Define interviewer bias.
    Intentional or unintentional influence exerted by a interviewer in such a way that the actual or interpreted behavior of respondents is consistent wth the interviewer's expectations
  37. Describe a panel study.
    Research in which the same sample of subjects is studied at two or more points in time usually to assess changes that occur over time.
  38. Distinguish between probability and nonprobability sampling techniques.
    • Probability sampling
    • Type of sampling procedure in which one is able to specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample

    • Nonprobability sampling
    • Type of sampling procedure in which one cannot specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample
  39. Describe simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, and clustered sampling.
    • Random sampling
    • Choosing people at random to reduce bias

    • Stratified random sampling
    • Population is divided into subgroups (strata) and random sampling techniques are then used to select sample members from each stratum

    • Clustered sampling
    • Existing groups or geographic areas (clusters) are identified. Clusters are sampled and then everyone in the selected clusters participate in the study.
  40. Describe haphazard sampling, purposive sampling, and quota sampling.
    • Haphazard (convenience) sampling
    • Selecting subjects in a haphazard manner, usually on the basis of availability, and not with regard to having a representative sample of the population
    • Type of nonprobability sampling

    • Purposive sampling
    • Type of haphazard sample conducted to obtain predetermined types of individuals for the sample

    • Quota sampling
    • A sampling procedure in which the sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population
    • A haphazard sampling technique is used to obtain the sample
  41. Describe the way the samples are evaluated for potential bias including sampling frames and response rate.
    • Sampling frames
    • Actual population of individuals in which sample would be drawn

    • Response rate
    • Percentage of people in the sample who actually completed the survey

    • 1. Randomly sample from a population that contains all individuals in the population
    • 2. Contact and obtain completed responses from all individuals slected to be in the sample

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