Chemistry Ch.4

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Echo
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176543
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Chemistry Ch.4
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2012-10-09 14:27:16
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Chemistry
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Ch.4 Chemistry Key Terms
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  1. Polar Molecule
    • A molecule with a permenant dipole moment 
    • Negative and Positive ends
  2. Hydration
    Interaction between solute particles and water moleules
  3. Solute
    Substance dissolved in a liquid to form a solution 
  4. Sovent
    Dissolving medium in a solution
  5. Electrical Conductivity
    Ability to conduct electricity 
  6. Strong electrolyte
    A material that when dissolved in water, creates a solution that conducts electricity very effectively
  7. Weak electrolyte
    A material that when dissolved in water, creates a solution that conducts electricity poorly
  8. non-electrolyte
    A material that when dissolved in water, creates a solution that does not conduct electricity
  9. Solubility
    Amount of substance that dissolves in a given volume of solvent at a given temperature 
  10. Acid
    • Produces H+ ions in a solution
    • Proton donor
  11. Base
    • Produces OHions in an aqueous solution
    • Accepts Protons
  12. Strong Acid
    Acid that completely dissociates to produce an H+ ion and a conjugate base
  13. Strong Base
    A Metal hydroxide salt that completely disssociates its ions in water
  14. Weak Acid
    An acid that dissociates only slightly in an aqueous solution
  15. Weak Base
    Base that reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions to only a slight extent in an aqueous solution 
  16. Molarity
    Number of moles per volume (mols/L)
  17. Stanadard Solution
    Solution whose concenration is acurately known
  18. Dilution
    The process of adding solvent to the lower concentration of solute in a solution
  19. Precipitation Reaction 
    A reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separates from the solution 
  20. Molecular equation 
    • Equation that represents a raction in solution showing the reactants and products in undissociated form
    • Whether they are strong or weak electrolytes 
  21. Complete Ionic Equation
    Equation that shows all substances that are strong electrolytes as ions 
  22. Spectator Ion
    Ion present in a solution that does not actively participate in the reaction
  23. Net Ionic equation 
    An Equation where strog electrolytes are written as ions showing only components that are directly involved in the chamical change
  24. Selctive Precipitation 
    Method to sepreate metal ions by using a reagent whose anion forms a precipitate with only a few of the ions in the solution
  25. Qualitative Analysis 
    Separation and identifictaion of individual ions from a mixture
  26. Neutralization Reaction
    An acid-base reaction
  27. Volumetric Alaysis
    Titration of one solution with another
  28. Titration 
    technique in which one solution is used to analyze another
  29. Equivalence (stiochiometric) point 
    Point during a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the solution being titrated
  30. Indicator
    • Chemical that changes color
    • Used to mark the endpoint in a titratiom
  31. Endpoint 
    Point in titration in which the indicator changes color
  32. Redox Reaction
    Reaction in which one or more elctrons are transfered
  33. Oxidation
    Increase in Oxidation state ( a loss of electrons)
  34. Reduction
    Decrease in Oxiodation state (gain of elctrons)
  35. Oxidizing Agent
    Accepts electrons from another reactant
  36. Reducing Agent
    Donates electrons to anther substance to reduce the state of one of its ataoms
  37. Half Reaction
    • The two parts of a redox reaction
    • one part represents oxidation the other part represents reduction

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