Anthropology 2-2

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rjtorn22
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176569
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Anthropology 2-2
Updated:
2012-10-09 15:39:14
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Anthropology
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Anthropology 2-2
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  1. The Upper Paleolithic
    • Only one hominid remains(?): Homo sapiens
    • Climate: 10°C colder than today
    • Cold adapted flora/fauna
    • Hunters/gatherers/fishers
    • Small, mobile bands
    • Health: Seasonal malnutrition; Degenerative diseases (arthritis); Trauma
  2. New Technology of Upper Paleolithic
    • Bone and antler tools
    • Atlatl
    • Hafting composite tools
    • Stylized tools
    • New flint knapping techniques
    • Stone tool efficiency
    • Calendars?
  3. Upper Paleolithic Burials
    • Burial goods include:
    • Jewelry and ornaments made of bone, shell, horn, teeth, ivory, and red ochre
    • Tools, weapons
    • Animal bones
    • Flowers
  4. Upper Paleolithic Types of Art
    • Portable Art
    • ---Personal adornments (beads, necklaces, bracelets), carved tools, musical instruments (flutes), carved animals, Venus figurines
    • Non-Portable Art
    • ---cave paintings in SW Europe
  5. Upper Paleolithic Art
    • Remote and hard to get to locales
    • Temples?; Sanctuaries?; Sacred Places?
    • Hunting magic?; fertility magic?; Music halls?
    • Context was important
    • Animals, geometric figures, anthropomorphs, plants
    • Polychromatic (black, gray, brown, red, white, yellow)
    • Natural pigments (pollen, ochre, manganese, hematite, charcoal) mixed with animal fat, blood, animal and vegetable oils, egg white
    • Brush paint, finger paint, stamp, stencil, bas-relief, engrave, sculpt, perspective
    • New images superimposed over old
    • Old images retouched
  6. Lascaux (Upper Paleolithic Art)
    ~600 paintings and 1500 engravings from 17,000 BP
  7. Altamira (Upper Paleolithic Art)
    Northern Spain from ~16,000 – ~14,000 BP (Polychromatic deer, bison, wild boar). Reds, blacks, earthen colors
  8. Christian Thomsen (1786-1865) & The Three Age System
    • 1. Lower Paleolithic: 2.3mya - 200,000 BP
    • 2. Middle Paleolithic: 200,000 BP - 40,000 BP
    • 3. Upper Paleolithic: 40,000 BP - 12,000 BP
    • 4. Mesolithic: began 12,000 BP
    • 5. Neolithic: began 10,000 BP
    • 6. Bronze Age: began 5,000 BP
    • 7. Iron Age: began 3,000 BP
  9. Mesolithic
    • Entire world populated by humans
    • End of the ice age
    • Hunters/gatherers
    • Fish, shellfish, small game, nuts, seeds, wild plants
    • More sites types (kill, lithic scatters, shell middens, fishing sites, base camps)
    • Architecture: Skin tents
    • Microliths
    • Ground stone tools
    • Nets and net sinkers
    • Fish hooks
    • Pottery
  10. Neolithic
    • Plant and animal domestication
    • Permanent settlements
    • Increased sedentism
    • Population growth
    • Mortars and Pestles
    • Weavings
    • Monumental architecture
    • Burials indicating social stratification
    • Long distance trade
    • Ideology/Religion
  11. Theories as to why homo-sapiens became farmers and ranchers
    • 1) Oasis: environmental changes led to closer association with certain plants and animals
    • 2) Food crisis and population explosion: mass extinctions made people more reliant on remaining species
    • 3) Marginal environment: living in marginal environments led to better management of plants and animals
  12. Animal Domestication
    • Manipulation of genetic material
    • Restriction of herds and interference with their reproduction
    • Artificial selective breeding
    • Transportation, warfare, beasts of burden, meat, milk, hides, bones, blood, eggs, wealth, companionship
  13. Domestic Animals vs Wild Animals
    • Smaller animals
    • Presence of desired traits
    • Mortality Profiles
  14. Plant Domestication
    • Manipulation of genetic material
    • Planting and harvesting becomes predictable
    • Not always successful
    • Food, drink, medicine, clothing, tools, ritual/ceremony, art/ornamentation/landscaping
  15. Domestic Plants vs Wild Plants
    • Larger plants
    • Quick germination
    • Loss of natural dissemination method
  16. Consequenes of Domestication
    • Availability of controlled resources
    • Production and storage of surplus for off-season use
    • Ecological disruptions, erosion, soil salination
    • Community life and poor sanitation, water contamination, and waste disposal problems.
    • Increased epidemics and the spread of infectious disease, such as zoonotic diseases.

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