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point at which some of the axons of retinal ganglion cells cross
left nasalhemiretina and right temporal hemiretina look at whcih direction?
Order in which information is processed in visual systems?
- 1. retina then
- 2. lateral geniculate nucleus
- 3. primary visual cortex
how is perception created?
light information has to reach visual primary cortex
Hubel and wiesel recorded from 3 different regions
-retinal ganglion cells
-lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus
-layer 4 cells of primary visual cortex
organization of visual cortex
neurons grouped in vertical columns all share same general visual area
- -appears to be important in determining WHERE?
- *damage here: prevents people from reaching out and grabbing objects
- **they may know what the object is though
- ***goes up the brain
- -appears to be important for identifying WHAT an object is
- *admage here: no problem reaching for the objects
- **cannot recognize what they are
- ***goes down the brain
Physical stimulus for vision is...
- *wavelengths will effect what color we see
- *size of the wave will effect the intensity (brightness)
physical stimuli for taste and olfaction are...
- *found in food, fluid, and air
physical stimuli for audition are...
- vibrations of air molecules
- *sound vibraitons
importance of the ear...
-for sound localization ad funneling vibrations to the sense organ
(turning vibrations into neural signals) sound waves travel down the auditory canal and...
impact on the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
3 small bones are on the other side of the tympanic membrane, whcih are?
how do the ossicles move?
movement of the tympanic membrane moves the bones
what do the ossicles provide for hearing?
Organ of corti
- -fluid-filled spiral with inner finger-like structure
- *sense organ of audition
deflection of hair cells in one direction mechanically causes...
ion channels to open
conversely, deflection of hair in the other direction...
prevents ion channel openings
receptors for sound are...
depolarization of a hair cell ultimately causes...
- NT released from it onto neurons and cause AP to be generated.
- *these neurons leave the ear as the auditory nerve then go to CNS
(receptive fields in cochlea) tones of different frequencies will cause...
hair cells in different parts of the cochlea to be stimulated
(receptive fields in cochlea) REGIONS of the cochlea that respond best to one tone...
can be thought of as having a receptive field for that tone
Cochlea has a tonotopic map
regions of the cochlea that respond best to one tone are neighbored by regions that respond best to a tone of a slightly different frequency
medial geniculate nucleus
region of the thalamus that processes auditory information
where are the primary and secondary cortex located?
***it is organized in columns
what prevents the ossciles from vibrating too muhc?
anteriro auditory pathway
posterior auditory pathway
- *to the right of brain
-located next to cochlea
-sense organ for the vestibular system
specific description of semi-circular canals
- sense organ
- -information related to head movements and intensity of head movements
- -important for balance
how do semi-circular canals translate head movements to neural signals? (3)
1.by the movement of the fluid in the semi-circular canals and the stimulaton of hair cells
2.infor from hair cells traveled out of auditory nerve
3. info is proceseed by brainstem and cerebellum
4.system works with visual system
-able to focus in what you are looking at regardless of movement
**balance and visual
causes of bed spins
-alcohol changes density of fluid in semi-circular canals causing to keep stimulating hair cells even when youre not moving
-mostly exaggertaed at night becaus ebrain cannotuse visual processes to let you know worls is still