FYS Exam 1

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FYS Exam 1
2012-10-09 23:23:52
FYS Attack Killer Microbes

Test of 10/10/12
Show Answers:

  1. What is the difference between zoonosis and vectors? and an example of each
    • Zoonosis has a reservoir and vertebrate is infected and transmits the disease. Usually infects and doesnt kill reservoir animal but makes humans ill or kills them
    • --> Ex: Hanta virus: mice reservoir

    • Vectors are arthropods, mosqitoes, invertebrates etc that transmit disease
    • --> Ex: Rift Valley Fever
  2. What are 2 ways to detect the presence of an antigen in serum?
    • ELISA
    • Flourescent Antibody Test
  3. How does an ELISA work?
    You have a plate coated in antibodies. These antibodies are specific for whatever antigen youre looking for. Add the blood serum, wash the plate (assuming virus stuck to the antibodies) and add more antibodies, these ones with enzymes attached and wash the plate again. After this add a substrate and if there is a reaction and color change you have detected the antigen
  4. Why do you die from illnesses such as ebola?
    Your body doesnt know what to do or how to make the antibodies
  5. Why does RNA mutate faster?
    Becuase it is more error prone because the enzymes (such as reverse transcriptase) have very hgh mutation rates and the change from RNA to DNA is an extra step leaving more room for error
  6. What are the types of vaccines and pros and cons of each?
    • Attenuated: live virus with a mutation that doesnt allow it to infect cells/reproduce/etc. and your body develops immunity. Ex: Up the nose serum flu vaccine
    • --->PROS: Better immune response
    • --->CONS: virus could mutate back and infect you
    • Killed: dead virus
    • --->PROS: cannot mutate
    • --->CONS: not as effective as immune response
  7. What are the types of hemmorrhagic fever?
    • Ebola
    • Marburg
    • BHF
    • AHF
  8. What is hantavirus? Effects and origin
    • Pulminary failure (non hemmorrhagic)
    • outbreak due to high counts of nuts, therefore more mice (environmental factors control outbreaks)
  9. What is VEE?
    • Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
    • Inflammation of your brain (non hemmorrhagic)
    • spread by vector
  10. What is rift valley fever?
    • can manifest as hemmorrhagic fever in less than 2% of cases
    • outbreak due to heavy rain (environmental factor) leading to much standing water and therefore more mosquitoes to spread it
  11. Explain smallpox
    • Deadly disease brought to america by europeans
    • eradicated completely
    • still samples contained in US and Russia
  12. Study Zaire ebola movie worksheet
  13. What is a virus?
    A nonliving collection of lipids protein and nucleic acids that relies on (And can kill) the cells of a host to replicate
  14. What is an index case?
    • Very first case of an outbreak
    • not necessarily first reported case
  15. What are the biosafety levels?
    • lvl 1: non pathogenic bacteria
    • level 2: pathogenic agents that dont cause serious disease, not normally airbourne
    • level 3: nasty diseases but have cure or not extremely contageous
    • level 4: deadly diseases very contageous no cure
  16. What does endemic mean?
    From a specific area