Digestive system terms

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  1. cirrhosis
    chronic degenerative disease of the liver 
  2. volvulus 
    twisting intestine on itself 
  3. ulcerative colitis 
    chronic inflammation of colon with presence of ulcers 
  4.  oral leukoplakia 
    white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
  5. aphthous stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth with small painful ulcers 
  6. steatorrhea
    fat in the feces, frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter 
  7. melena
    black, tarry stool, feces containing digested blood
  8. hematochezia
    passage of fresh bright red blood from the rectum
  9. dysentery
    painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by baterial infection
  10. hemorroids 
    swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region
  11. esophageal varicies
    swollen varicose veins at lower end of esophagus 
  12. colorectal cancer 
    adenocarcinoma of colon or rectum or both
  13. intussusception
    telescoping of the intestines 
  14. colonic polyps
    polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of colon
  15. anal fistula
    abnormal tube-like passageway near anus
  16. peptic ulcer
    open sore in lining of stomach or duodenum
  17. viral hepatitis
    • inflammation of the liver caused by a virus 
    • hep a
    • hep b
    • hep c
  18. achalasia 
    failure of lower esophagus sphincter muscle to relax (LES)
  19. diverticulosis
    abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall 
  20. ascites 
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  21. ilieus
    loss of peristalsis with resulting obstuction of the intestines
  22. cholelithiasis
    gallstones in the gallbladder 

    • Calculi (stones) 
    • bilary colic (pain from blocked cystic or common bile duct)
  23. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  24. proct/o 
    anus and rectum
  25. pylor/o
    pyloric sphincter 
  26. -ase
  27. -chezia
    defecation, elimination of waste 
  28. -iasis
    abnormal condition
  29. -prandial
  30. ilieum
    3rd part of small intestine 
  31. incisor
    one of four front teeth in the dental arch 
  32. isulin
    Hormone produced by endocrine cells in pancreas. Transport sugar from blood to cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver. 
  33. lith/o
  34. prote/o
  35. fatty acids 
    substances produced when fats are digested 
  36. gallbladder 
    small sac under liver, stores bile 
  37. glycogen
    starch. glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells 
  38. hydrochloric acid
    produced in stomach, necessary for digestion
  39. celi/o
    belly, abdomen
  40. pyloric sphincter
    • ring of muscle at end of stomach near duodenum. 
    • gatekeeper
    • opens when wave of peristalsis comes 
  41. pylorus
    • opening to duodenum 
    • (digital region of stomach)
  42. rectum
    last part of Large instestines connects colon to anus
  43. rugae
    ridges of hard palate and wall of stomach
  44. pharynx
  45. portal vein
    Lg. vein bringing blood to liver from instestines 
  46. protease
    enzyme digests protein
  47. pulp
    • soft tissue within tooth 
    • (nerves and blood vessels) 
  48. salivary glands
    • paratoid, sublingual, submadibular glands 
    • produce saliva (digestive juice)
  49. sigmoid colon
    4th and last S shaped part of colon, before rectum, empties into rectum
  50. sphincter
    circular muscle constricts passage or closes a natural opening 
  51. stomach
    organ that recieves food from esophagus 
  52. pancreas
    organ under stomach. produces insulin and enzymes 
  53. papillae (papilla)
    small elevations on tongue
  54. parotid gland
    salivary gland in cheek
  55. peristalsis
    rythmic contactions of tubular organs. moves stuff through digestion at different rates 
  56. lower esophageal sphincter
    ring of muscle between esophagus and stomach (cardiac sphincter) 
  57. mastication
  58. molar teeth
    • 6th, 7th, 8th teeth from middle of dental arch 
    • Premolar: 4th, 5th before molars 
  59. palate
    rood of mouth
  60. emulsification
    physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones, increasing surface area that enzymes use to digest fat
  61. enamel
    hard outtermost layer of tooth
  62. enzyme
    Chem. that speeds up reaction between substances (breakdown foods) 
  63. esophagus
    Tube connecting throat to stomach 
  64. deglutition
  65. dentin
    primary material found in teeth. Covered by enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root 
  66. duodenum
    first part of small intestines. 
  67. elimination
    act of removal of materials from body
  68. triglycerides
    fat molecules compsed of 3 part fatty acid and 1 part glycerol
  69. uvula
    soft tissue hanging from middle of soft palate 
  70. villi (villus)
    finger like projections in walls of intestines that absorb nutrients into bloodstream
  71. appendix
    • blind pouch hanging from cecum. 
    • in RLQ
  72. bile
    • digestive juice made in liver, stored by gallbladder. Originally called gall (anger) because of bitter taste.; 
    • Composed of bile colors, cholesterol and bile salts. 
  73. bilirubine
    pigment released by liver in bile
  74. bowel
  75. irritable bowel syndrome
    group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension
  76. crohns disease
    • chronic inflammation of intestinal tract 
    • (terminal ileum and colon)
    • (form of inflamatory bowel disease) 
  77. cholecyst/o
  78. absorption
    passage of materials through walls of small intestine into blood 
  79. amino acids
    small building blocks of proteins released when protein is digested 
  80. amylase
    enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch 
  81. jejunum
    2nd part of small intestine

    this part is always empty when body examined after death 
  82. lipase
    pancreatic enzyme digests fat 
  83. liver
    • RUQ of abdomen. 
    • secretes bile, stores sugar, iron, vitamins
    • produces protein and destroys worn out RBC 
  84. canine teeth
    pointed dog like teeth next to incisors 
  85. cecum
    first part of large intestine
  86. colon
    • Lg. intestine. 
    • consisting of cecum (ascending, transverse and descending parts of colon) and rectum
  87. common bile duct
    Carries bile from liver and gallbladder to duodenum
  88. bilirubin/o
    • bilirubin 
    • bile pigment
  89. chol/e
  90. stomat/o
  91. uvul/o
  92. or/o
  93. palat/o
  94. jejun/o
  95. lingu/o
  96. cheil/o

  97. gloss/o
  98. gastr/o
  99. gingiv/o
  100. esophag/o
  101. faci/o
  102. eti/o
  103. idi/o
  104. append/o
  105. an/o
  106. dent/i
  107. duoden/o
  108. duct/o
    to lead, carry
  109. buccal
  110. mandibul/o
    • lower jar
    • mandible 
  111. odont/o
  112. pancreat/o
  113. pharyng/o
  114. sialaden/o
    salivary gland 
  115. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  116. amyl/o
  117. bil/i
    gall, bile 
  118. chlorhydro/o
    hydrochloric acid
  119. glyc/o
  120. glycogen/o
    glycogen, animal starch
  121. lip/o
    fat lipid 
  122. sial/o
    salivary gland
  123. streat/o
  124. constipation
    difficulty passing stools 
  125. diarrhea
    frequent passage of loose watery stool
  126. eructation
    gas expelled from stomach through mouth
  127. flatus
    gas expelled through anus 

    flatulence: presence of excessive gas in stomach and intestines 
  128. jaundice (icterus)
    yellow-orange coloration of skin and whites of eyes caused by to much bilirubin in blood 
  129. nausea
    unpleasent sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit 
  130. dental caries
    tooth decay
  131. hernia
    protusion of an organ or part, through muscle that normally contains it. 

    • hiatal: upper part of stomach up to diaphram
    • inguinal: bowel through abdomen
  132. gastric cancer
    malignant tumor of stomach
  133. esophageal cancer
    malignant tumor of esophagus 
  134. pancreatic cancer
    malignant tumor of the pancreas 
  135. pancreatitis
    inflammation of pancreas
  136. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    solids or fluids return to mouth from stomach 

  137. peridontal disease
    inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth and surrounding bone 
  138. herpetic stomatitis
    inflammation of mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus
  139. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing 
  140. borborygmus (borborygmi)
    rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid or both in gastrointestinal tract. 
  141. anorexia
    lack of appetite
  142. -ectasis
    • stretching 
    • dilation
    • dilatation
    • widening 
  143. -emesis
  144. -lysis
    destruction, breakdown, separation
  145. -pepsia 
  146. -phagia
    • eating 
    • swallowing 
  147. -plasty 
    surgical repair
  148. -ptosis
    • drooping, sagging 
    • protruding 
  149. -ptysis 
  150. -rrhage
    bursting forth (of blood) 
  151. -rrhaphy
  152. -rrhea
    flow discharge 
  153. -spasm
    involuntary contraction of muscles 
  154. -stasis 
    stopping, controlling 
  155. -stenosis 
    tightening, stricture, narrowing 
  156. -tresia 
  157. Liver function tests (LFT's) 
    tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in blood 
  158. Alk Phos 
    alkaline phosphatase 

    enzyme that my elevate in patients with liver, bone and other diseases 
  159. serum bilirube 
    can elevate in patients with liver disease and jaundice 
  160. Direct bilirubin test 

    indirect bilirubin test
    direct: measure conjugated bilirubin

    indirect: measure unconjugated bilirubin
  161. stool culture
    test for microorganisms in feces
  162. stool guaic test or hemoccult test 
    test to detect occult (hidden) blood in feces 
  163. lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema) 
    X-ray images of the colon and rectum obtained after injection of barium into rectum 
  164. upper gastrointestinal series 
    X-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth
  165. cholangiography 
    X ray examination of the biliary system performed after injection of contrast into the bile ducts. 

    • percutaneous: administered through abdomin
    • retrograde: through oral catheter 
  166. computed tomography 
    a series of x-ray images are taken in multiple views (especially cross section) 
  167. abdominal ultrasonography
    sound waves beamed into the abdomen produce image of abdominal viscera 
  168. endoscopic ultrasonography 
    use of an endoscope combined with ultrasound to examine the organs of the gastrointestinal tract 
  169. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 
    magnetic waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body 
  170. gastric bypass or 
    bariatric surgery 
    reducing the size of the stomach and diverting food to jejunum (gastrojejunostomy) 
  171. gastrointestinal endoscopy 
    visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using an endoscope 
  172. laparoscopy 
    visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen with a laparoscope inserted through small incisions in the abdomen
  173. liver biopsy 
    removal of liver tissue for microscopic examination 
  174. nasogastric intubation
    insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach
  175. paracentesis 
    surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen 
  176. Alk Phos 
    alkaline phosphatase 
  177. ALT, AST 
    • alanine trasaminase 
    • aspartate trasaminase 
    • enzymes measured to evaluate liver function 
  178. BE
    barium enema 
  179. BM
    bowel movement 
  180. BRBPR
    bright red blood per rectum
  181. CT
    computed tomography 
  182. EGD
  183. ERCP
    • endoscopic retrograde 
    • cholangiopancreatography 
  184. EUS 
    endoscopic ultrasonography 
  185. FOBT
    fecal occult blood test 
  186. G Tube 
    • gastrostomy tube 
    • also called stomach tube 
    • used to introduce nutrients into stomach after insertion through the abdomal wall with laparoscopic instruments 
  187. GB
  188. GERD
    gastroesophageal reflux disease 
  189. GI
  190. HBV 
    hepatitis B virus 
  191. IBD 
    inflammatory bowel disease 
  192. LAC 
    laparoscopic assisted colectomy 
  193. LFT's
    liver function tests 
  194. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging 
  195. NG Tube 
    nasogastric tube 
  196. NPO
    nothing by mouth 
  197. PEG Tube 
    • percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy  tube 
    • feeding tube 
  198. PEJ Tube 
    • percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube 
    • feeding tube 
  199. PTHC 
    percutaneous trashepatic cholangiography 
  200. PUD
    peptic ulcer disease 
  201. TPN
    intravenous TPN solutions typically contain sugar, protein, electrolytes and vitamins 
  202. T Tube 
    tube placed in the bile duct for drainage into small pouch on the outside of body 
Card Set:
Digestive system terms
2012-10-10 07:23:05
Allied health digestive system

Terms for digestive system
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