Integument, muscles. senses

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Integument, muscles. senses
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2012-10-23 19:36:24
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Anatomy lecture
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Anat lecture, Integument, muscles, senses
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  1. functions of skin
    • protection
    • thermoregulation
    • hydration
    • excretion of water, salts and organic wastes
    • sensory organ
    • engaged in synthesis of vitamin D and storage of nutrients
  2. Integument
    • largest and most extensive of systems.  Barrier between inside and out.
    • Contains connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. 
    • skin, skin glands, hair, claw, hoof, horn
  3. Cells of epidermis
    • keratinocytes
    • langerhans
    • melanocytes
    • merkel cells
  4. basement membrane
    separates dermis from epidermis
  5. keratinocytes
    • Majority of cells of epidermis. 
    • Grow and divide along basement membrane (between d and e)
    • keratinization
    • strength
  6. Langerhans
    • cell in epidermis
    • macrophages.  Eat invaders
  7. melanocytes
    • cell in epidermis
    • produce melanin
  8. merkel cells
    • cell in epidermis
    • at junction of epidermis and dermis
    • sensory (touch)
  9. layers of the epidermis
    • (Top to bottom)  Stratum corneum
    • stratum lucidum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum spirosum
    • stratum germinativum or stratum basale
  10. stratum basale
    • base layer of epidermis
    • single row of keratinocytes (cell division)
    • merkel cells and melanocytes also found here
  11. stratum spinosum
    • spiny layer.  second from basement membrane (between basale and granulosum)
    • prickle cells
    • desmosomes (hold cells together)
    • infrequent divisions
    • Langerhans cells (lots)
  12. Stratum granulosum
    • granular layer of epidermis (between spinosum and lucidum)--middle
    • 2-4 layers, glattened diamond-shaped keratinocytes
    • keratinize and die.  Fill with granules (waterproof)
  13. stratum lucidum
    • clear layer. 
    • only in thick skin (foot pads.  Not in most skin)
    • translucent layer composed of a few rows of flattened, dead cells
  14. stratum corneum
    • horny layer.  Outermost. 
    • Dominates the epidermis (75%)
    • composed of 20-30 rows of dead keratinocytes. 
    • Dander
  15. epidermis. 
    • layers.  thin areas may lack a few layers. 
    • no blood or lymph vessels
    • nourished by diffusion (further away = dead
  16. skin covered by fur has which three layers?
    • stratum basale
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum corneum
  17. dermis
    • greatest portion of integument
    • strength of the skin
    • primarily fibrous. 
    • Elastic (connective tissue), vascularized (blood vessels), innerated (nerves)
    • 2 layers (Papillary and reticular)
  18. 2 layers of dermis
    papillary (top) and reticular (deep)
  19. Meissner's corpuscle
    sensitive to light touch.  Found in papillary dermis. 
  20. Papillary dermis
    top layer of dermis.  Loose areolar connective tissue.  Has meissner's corpuscles. 
  21. Reticular dermis
    • dense irregular connective tissue. 
    • bottom layer
    • fibers in parallel bundles.  Direction based on skin tension. 
  22. hypodermis
    • below dermis.  Not part of skin (sub Q)
    • rich in blood, lymphatic vessels and nerves. 
    • missing/thin where skin is firm: lips, eyelid, etc. 
    • lets skin move over bone. 
    • Contains pacinian corpuscles
  23. Pacinian corpuscles
    sensitive to heavy pressure.  Found in hypodermis
  24. Integumentary nerves
    • in dermis, with some overlap into epidermis
    • Sympathetic nervous system
    • ennervates blood vessels, sweat glands and erector pili muscle.
  25. Integumentary blood vessels
    none found in epidermis.  Present in dermis and hypodermis
  26. Metacarpal pad
    • contains conical papilla (rough feel)
    • outer skin (stratum corneum) thickest in body
    • contains all five layers of skin
    • Pacinian corpuscles and exocrine and sweat glands. 
  27. types of paw pads
    • 4 digital (distal)
    • metacarpal/metatarsal (big one)
    • another digital (forelimb only, proximal to metacarpal)
    • carpal pad (forelimb only
  28. Planam nasale
    • dog-type nose.  Separated from muzzle. 
    • 3 layers, no granulum or lucidum.  Corneum is 3-8 layers (thin). 
    • Deep surface grooves look scale or plate-like
    • no glands--moist from licking. 
  29. planum nasolabiale
    muzzle (like a horse or cow--nose is part of mouth-area.  Not like dog)
  30. Ergot
    Dark horny structure on fetlock of horse/pony/equine. 
  31. chestnut
    Dark horny structure on carpus and tarsus of horse/pony/equine. 
  32. Specialized sebaceous glands of sheep
    • cutaneous pouches are infoldings of skin
    • infraorbital
    • interdigital
    • inguinal
  33. Specialized sebaceous glands in goat
    horn gland
  34. specialized sebaceous glands in pig
    carpal gland
  35. Functions of hair
    • maintaining body temperature by trapping insulating layer of air, dark absorbs light
    • protection
    • camouflage (spots on fawn)
    • Sex recognition (mane or beard)
    • aggression display

    Thickest on back, thinnest in groin
  36. Hair follicle or bulb
    • epidermal in origin (infolding of epidermis to make pore), extends to dermis or hypodermis
    • not a source of hair, assists with chemicals.
  37. hair dermal papilla
    little black sac at very base of hair bulb
  38. hair matrix
    grows/makes the hair.  fat part of bulb
  39. layers of hair follicle
    • hair
    • internal root sheath
    • external root sheath (production of sebaceous gland)
    • dermal or connective root sheath
  40. 3 layers of hair
    • medulla: center, soft keratin, flexible.  Polar bears have air instead.  Wool hairs don't have
    • Cortex: stiff, rigid.  Hard keratin.  Center layer
    • Cuticle Cell: one layer of keratin.  Outside (meets up with inner root sheath)
  41. 3 hair types
    • primary/guard hairs
    • secondary/wool hairs
    • tactile/sinus hairs
  42. primary or guard hairs
    • generall dominant hair in complex follicle
    • makes up smooth outer coat
  43. secondary or wool hairs
    undercoat.  Softer and shorter than primary hairs.  Dominant in wooly animals.  More in winter (different animals have different)
  44. compound hair follicle
    several hairs in one pore.  Each have own follicle/bulb. 
  45. Tactile hairs
    • sinus hairs or whiskers. 
    • Used as probes or feelers
    • sensitive to touch
    • blood-filled sinus around the base
    • follicles are deeper in. 
    • venus sinus and nerve endings the first things to develop
  46. Phases of hair growth
    • anagen
    • catagen
    • telogen
    • repeat
  47. anagen phase
    • Division of epithelial cells covering the dermal papilla generates the hair itself
    • time of growth
    • epithelial cells push up and away from dermal papilla (layers make up the hair shaft and root)
  48. Catagen phase
    • period of transition between anagen and telogen. 
    • Detaches from matrix.  Held in by friction (detaches easily)
  49. Telogen phase
    resting phase.  The hair doesn't grow but stays attached while the dermal papilla is resting. 
  50. 3 reasons for shedding
    • genetics
    • environment (responds to temperature change, day length, nutrition)
    • hormonal changes: telogen effuvium (blowing the coat).  Loses lots of fur after whelping to form the nest
  51. Melanin comes from the
    melanocytes in cortex and medulla
  52. Arrector pili muscle
    • muscle that makes hair stand up when frightened or cold 
    • Sympathetic nervous system
    • forces sebum onto skin. 
    • attaches to bulb
  53. Sebaceous glands
    •  oil producing glands all over body except specialized regions (paw pads, planum nasale)
    • dump into hair follecule or directly onto skin
    • external root sheath in dermis
    • simple or complex alveolar structures (duct portion does or does not branch)
    • Some "marking" glands, in pouches
    • arrector pili forces sebum onto skin
  54. Sebaceous glands are ________________ glands because epithelial cell of duct is lost in secretion
    holocrine
  55. sebum
    oily liquid substance.
  56. uses of sebum
    • traps moisture in
    • keeps skin soft, pliant and somewhat waterproof
    • antifungal and antibacterial properties
  57. Lanolin
    sheep sebum.  Aids in shedding water from coats.
  58. musculocutaneous junction
    where mucous membranes and skin come together.  Lips, vulva, labia.  A place sebaceous glands drop sebum directly onto the skin
  59. Sweat glands
    • sudoriferous glands.  Throughout the body
    • Apocrine and Eccrine
  60. Apocrine glands
    • type of sweat or sudoriferous gland
    • Coiled excretory portion buried in dermis or hypodermis with single excretory duct that empties into HAIR FOLLICLE
    • predominate in domestic species
  61. Eccrine gland
    • sweat or sudoriferous gland
    • coiled tube in dermis and hypodermis with long duct that empties ON SURFACE OF SKIN
    • Dogs: connective tissue of footpads
  62. Do domestic animals have more apocrine or eccrine glands? 
    Apocrine
  63. Tail gland
    • Dorsal base of tail in cats and dogs
    • contains many apocrine and sebaceous glands
    • sensitive to changes in sex hormones
  64. Musk glands
    powerful smelling collection of glands in the male musk deer and skunk
  65. Anal sacs
    • collection of glands with 1 duct that leads into anus. 
    • In cats and dogs, similar to musk glands in deer and skunk. 
    • 4 and 8 o'clock position relative to anus
    • mark territory and attract a mate
    • can rupture and cause and abscess
  66. Mammary gland
    • a modified sweat gland in two parts that nourishes the young. 
    • Comprised of mamma and teat
  67. mamma
    more medial/dorsal/proximal part of mammary gland.  The glandular structure
  68. teat
    • the more ventral/lateral/distal part of the mammary gland. 
    • a surface papilla
  69. Mammary gland placement and teat number(*):
    man, monkey, elephant
    cat(*)
    dog (*) and pig
    ruminant and equine (*)
    • man, monkey, elephant---thoracic
    • cat---thoracoabdominal
    • dog and pig---thoracoabdominalinguinal
    • ruminant and equine----inguinal
    • horse*: 2 teats
    • Cat*: 8 teats
    • Dog*: 10 teats
  70. Intermammary groove
    separates halves of udder
  71. Udder
    term designated for the mammae in ruminant and mare
  72. quarters
    the four parts of the bovine udder, each associated with one teat
  73. Order of milk production in mammary gland
    • Alveoli (grape-like clusters of glandular tissue)
    • Intralobular duct
    • interlobular duct
    • milk (lactiferous) duct
    • milk (lactiferous) sinus)
    • gland sinus
    • teat sinus
    • teat canal (papillary duct or streak canal)
    • teat opening
  74. milk letdown
    release of milk from the breast following tactile stimulation of the nipple.  Moves milk into the collecting ducts and toward the nipple
  75. Male teats
    • same number and position as females
    • Ruminants: cranial surface of scrotum
    • Equine: absent but if present are located beside the prepuce
    • Only funtional in females
  76. Cow suspensory apparatus
    • the specialized attachment of the udder to the body.  Must be very strong--udder can weigh 100 lbs
    • median suspensory ligament
    • lamellae
    • lateral suspensory ligament
  77. circumoral (perioral) glands
    specialized marking gland in skin around mouth of cat
  78. horn glands
    caudal to the base of horn in goats and some sheep. 
  79. Glands of the infraorbital sinus
    Marking gland rostral to the eye in sheep and goats
  80. Carpal glands
    Pig marking glands.  Rostral to carpus, caudal/medial part of leg.  Male marks sow when mating. 
  81. Glands of the interdigital sinus
    marking glands between digits in sheep and deer.  Pawing = marking
  82. Preputial glands
    at the covering of the penis (prepuce).  Produce smegma (bean)
  83. circumanal glands
    gland around anus of carnivores
  84. Claw
    • curved or pointed appendage at end of digit in mammals, avians, some reptiles
    • hard, often pigmented outer coverings of the distal digits
    • Most animals have nonretractable.  All cats except cheetahs have retractable. 
    • Cant be separated from distal phalanx
  85. dewclaw
    • remnants of digits that have regressed during evolution
    • Dog 1st digit
    • pig, cow, sheep: 2nd and 5th digits.
    • Only pig has a dewclaw bone.   
  86. Ungula
    • hoof
    • Ruminants have 4 hooves per foot and each covers a digit
  87. how many hooves do ruminants have?
    16--4 per foot, each covers a digit
  88. how many hooves do horses have?
    4, 1 per foot (digit 3)
  89. Equine corium
    • sensitive layer (modified dermis) lining coffin bone. 
    • rich in blood vessels to provide nutrients to developing cells in inner layers of hoof
    • well innervated, sensitive to pain
  90. Equine lateral cartilege
    • supports equine hoof.  With frog and digital cushion, keeps blood flowing through the foot. 
    • At back of hoof, around around and caudal to coffin joint
  91. layers (structure) of equine hoof
    • coffin bone is cloaked in a layer of corium (modified dermis) which in turn is covered by the outer cornified hoof (modified epidermis). 
    • Outer layers of hoof wall, frog and sole are insensitive and avascular. 
  92. laminae
    interdigitation of corium and hoof wall.  Any physical change can effect blood flow to the hoof.  Bone shifts to cause founder or laminitis
  93. Coronary band or coronet
    band around top of hoof where hair stops.  Hair grows from here.  (line between furry part and hoof part)
  94. periople
    thin waxy layer of hoof that covers outside.  shiny
  95. Wall of hoof
    convex external surface.  Seen from cranial, medial and lateral sides. 
  96. Toe of hoof
    seen from front.  Very tip
  97. quarters of hoof
    seen from lateral angle.  Sides/bottom of hoof
  98. heel of hoof
    back/bottom.  Tapers to almost at base
  99. heel bulbs
    back of hoof near coronary band
  100. bars of hoof
    continuation of hoof, around outside of frog on base of hoof. 
  101. frog
    • insensitive triangle of hoof.  Horny structure located between the heels on the underside. 
    • Helps return blood from the foot to the body. 
    • Point/apex at toe, base at heel. 
  102. sole of hoof
    • plantar or palmar surface of hoof.  Avascular, lacks innervation.  Gets nutrients and nervous input from corium (like epidermis).  Corium connects sole to underside of coffin bone. 
    • Concave.  Fills in from walls to bars
  103. White line
    • thin white strip that is formed at junction of the sole and the hoof wall. 
    • Needed in shoeing--drive nails outside of the white line
  104. collateral sulcus
    separates frog from bars of the hoof
  105. central sulcus
    cleft of frog.  Divides frog in half.  Central depression of the hoof
  106. digital cushion
    fat and fibrous tissue cranial/medial/proximal to the frog.  helps support hoof and return blood to body. 
  107. cow hoof digits
    • 4 digits, 2 weight-bearing, 2 dewclaw
    • Similar to equine hoof: Bones (P2 and P3, navicular), wall, white line, sole, heel bulb (keritinized hoof pads for shock absorption), corium, digital cushion.
    • Not similar: no frog, no bars
  108. interdigital cleft of bovine hoof
    separates two hooves (3 and 4).  Axial (in between) or abaxial (each side)
  109. Ungual process
    curved extension of digital phalanx.  what the quick surrounds in the nail
  110. ungual crest
    thin shelf of bone that overlaps the claw and forms a band around the root of the claw.  Where the claw grows out of
  111. Onychectomy
    declaw.  Removal of the claws in cats.  To prevent regrowth, must amputate the entire distal phalanx at the joint
  112. Animals with horns
    • sheep, goats, cattle, antelope
    • Bony core with permanent tough external covering
  113. animals with antlers
    • deer, moose elk. 
    • bony core with velvet covering.  Shed yearly
  114. animals that have ossicones
    • Tiny permanent growths covered in skin, like horn-buds. 
    • Giraffes, Okapi
  115. animals that have pronghorns
    • Permanent bony core and unique hairy covering. 
    • Only in the pronghorn antelope
  116. Horns
    • epidermal covering of the cornual process of the frontal bone.  Permanent.  Vary in sex, size and shape.  Never branch. 
    • Bony core covered by a sheet of keratin
    • all 3 domestic ruminanats have them (cow sheep goats antelope)
    • inner process lined by combined corium and periosteum.
  117. Cornual process or horny process
    • outgrowth of frontal bone (might be os cornu--horn bone that fuses).  Horn bud grows out as a solid structure that becomes pneumatized by about 6 months of age
    • ornual diverticulum of frontal sinus
  118. soft horn
    at the base of the horn is a ring of soft horn marking the transisiton from skin to horn.  Grwos out then covers with a thin shiny layer
  119. horn placement
    cow
    sheep
    goats
    • Cow; caudolateral end of head
    • sheep and goats: behind the orbits
  120. dehorning must be done by:
    10 days of age (5-10 ideally).  Later and the bone becomes pneumatized and you risk cutting a whole in their head
  121. polled
    hornless
  122. antlers
    • living bone, have velvet (vascular and innervated), branched, shed annualy, grow from pedicle off frontal bone. 
    • Regulated by hormones (breeding season).  Only in cervid males except caribou.  Can be enormous--get bigger as animal gets older. 
    • Tear off velvet at end of season--shiny and wood-like
  123. ossicones
    simplest type of head-wear.  Paired short, unbranched, permanent, bony processes that are covered in skin and hair.  Not shed, both sexes and newborns have them.  Lie over sutures between frontal and parietal boens
  124. Cervid
    deer
  125. pronghorns
    bony core like a cow, but with a 2-branched sheath that is shed annually.  ALways has s2 hooks. 
  126. Rhino horns
    special type: fused mass of long, hair-like strands of keratin.  Rest on bony knob on much-strengthened nasal bone.  Lacks a bony core.  Male and female have horns of equal size. 
  127. Pinna
    ear flap.  External, most visible cartilege core with skin covering
  128. myo
    muscle
  129. myology
    study of muscles
  130. sarco
    muscle cell
  131. sarcoplasma
    cytoplasm of a muscle cell
  132. Uses of muscles
    • cause or prevent movement
    • stabilize joints
    • keep sphincters closed or open
    • maintain posture
    • generate heat
  133. 3 types of muscle tissue
    • cardiac
    • smooth
    • skeletal
  134. skeletal muscle
    • Striated multi-nucleic muscle found on skeleton (most "muscles"), moves bones and generates heat. 
    • Long thin striated fibers with multiple nuclei. 
    • Voluntary movement.  Nerve supply necessary for function.
    • Have arteries, veins and lymphs
  135. Cardiac muscle
    • Striated single-nucleic, branched muscle of heart.  Pumps blood. 
    • Involuntary: nerve supply modified action but not necessary for function.  Initiates its own beat.  Nervous system just change rhythm. 
    • Branches=intercollated discs
  136. Smooth muscle
    • non-striated, single-nucleic, spindle-shaped cells of internal organs, blood vessels and the eye.  Produces movement in internal organs. 
    • Involuntary.  Nerve supply to visceral smooth muscle modifies activity.  Nerve supply to multiunit is necessary for function
  137. tendons
    fibrous bands of collagen connecting muscle to bone.  Dense regular avascular connective tissue. 
  138. Aponeurosis
    broad fibrous connective tissue that attaches some muscle to bone or other muscles
  139. Origin of a muscle
    the more stable attachement site of a muscle
  140. insertion of a muscle
    the more moveable attachment site of a muscle
  141. muscle agonist
    directly responsible for the action
  142. muscle antagonist
    opposes action of the agonist.  Directly opposite
  143. synergist
    assists the action of the agonist.  Opposes undesireable action. 
  144. strap muscle
    parallel.  Shaped like a strap. 
  145. fusiform muscle
    spindle-shaped muscle
  146. bipennate muscle
    muscle like a feather, with fibers going in two directions on opposite sides
  147. unipennate muscle
    feather-shaped muscle with fibers going in only one direction
  148. multipennate muscle
    feather-like muscle with fibers going in 3 or more directions/sides. 
  149. sphincter muscle
    muscle in a circle
  150. Muscle fiber
    one cell. Myofibril
  151. facicle
    bundle of muscle fibers, or myofibrils held together by connective tissue. 
  152. Perimysium
    encircles group of muscle fibers forming a fascicle
  153. endomysium
    surrounds each muscle fiber (cell, myofibril)
  154. epimysium
    encircles all the fascicles
  155. Tendons
    • connective tissue sheets connecting muscle to bone
    • form insertion and origin
    • elastic but with tensile strength
    • cushioned by sesamoids, bursae and/or sheaths
  156. Innervation of skeletal muscle
    • single or multiple (trunk) nerves. 
    • Nerve to fiber ration governs delicacy of movement (less nerves per fiber = more delicacy)
    • stimulation leads to shortening. 
    • Multiple moro units can be in one muscle
  157. Skeletal muscle fiber types
    • Type I: Red
    • Type II: White
  158. Skeletal Type I fibers
    Red muscle.  Contains oxygen-binding protein myoglobin, contacts slowly (slow twitch), contracts for long periods, suited for endurance, slow to fatigue
  159. skeletal type II fibers
    white muscle.  Absense of myoglobin, contract quickly (fast twitch), short bursts of speed and power
  160. myoglobin
    • oxygen storage unit.  Provides oxygen to working muscles. 
    • Protein found in muscle cells of animals (diving animals have lots so they can stay submerged longer--seals, whales)
  161. cutaneous muscles
    • Vary in thickness and extent.  Most are thin, broad and superficial. 
    • Tense, twitch skin of lateral thorax and abdomen
    • Little or no attachment to bone
    • Cutaneous trunci, cutaneous colli, playsmus
  162. Playsmus
    cutaneous muscle (dog and cat), ventral to pinna, back of jaw/cheek, dorsal/lateral neck.  Opposite cutaneus colli.
  163. cutaneous trunci
    covers dorsal and lateral ventral thorax (round the thorax muscle).  All domestics but humans have it. 
  164. cutaneous colli
    sternum to neck, external jugular.  Opposite playsmus (back of neck to jaw).  Best in equine
  165. Superficial muscles
    • masseter
    • brachiocephalicus
    • trapezius
    • sternocephalicus
    • superficial and deep pectoral
    • infraspinatus
    • deltoid
    • latissimus dorsi
    • serratus ventralis
    • internal and external abdominal oblique
    • middle and superficial gluteals
  166. Facial muscles
    • control facial expressions
    • enable chewing (mastication)
    • move sensory structures such as the eye and ear
    • support the head and allow neck to flex, extend and move head laterally
  167. Orbicularis oris muscle
    facial muscle (motor fiber of facial nerve Cn XII) controlling cheek and lips
  168. buccinator muscle
    cheek muscle (motor fibers of facial nerve Cn XII)  facial muscle
  169. orbicularis oculi muscle
    facial muscle (motor fibers of facial nerve Cn XII) controlling the eye
  170. digastricus
    opens the mouth.  Caudal edge of mandible, ventral (V pointing at chin)
  171. Muscles that close the jaw
    masseter, temporalis and medial and lateral pterygoid
  172. Masseter
    closes jaw, with temporalis and medial and lateral pterygoid.  At caudal end of jaw
  173. muscles of the tongue and the nerve that ennervates them
    • syloglossus, geniglossus, hyoglossus,
    • ennervated by hypoglossal nerve (Cn XII)
  174. Mylohyoid
    sling for tongue, raises floor of mouth.  Inside of "V" made by digastricus.  Fibers run transversely
  175. Extrinsic muscle
    extends from one place to another body structure
  176. intrinsic muscle
    arise and terminate on one body structure. 
  177. Dorsal cricoarytenoid
    opens the glottis.  Instrisic larygneal muscle that abducts the vocal folds
  178. Roarers
    larygeal hemiplagia in the horse.  Damage to one side of the glottis so that only 1/2 opens. 
  179. Brachiocephalicus
    • head/neck muscle.  Arm to head.  Pulls the limb forward, depresses and pulls head and neck laterally. 
    • Carnivores, ruminants and pigs: 3 parts
    • Equines: 2 parts
  180. How many parts does the brachiocephalicus have in:
    carnivore
    ruminant
    pig
    horse
    • Carnivore, ruminant, pig: 3 parts
    • horse: 2 parts
  181. Sternocephalicus
    • forms, along with brachiocephalicus, the jugular groove in horse and ruminants.  Just cranial to brachiocephalicus
    • Depresses head and neck and/or draws the head and neck to the side
  182. How many parts does the sternocephalicus have in:
    carnivore
    ox
    goat
    pig
    sheep
    horse
    • Carnivores: 2 parts
    • Ox and goat: 2 parts
    • Pig and sheep: 1 part
    • horse: 1 part
  183. Sternohyoid
    from first sternebra (manubrium) and first costal cartilage up the neck to insert on the hyoid apparatus.  Center of throat, over larynx
  184. Sternothyroid
    Arises from sternohyoid and inclines laterally to insert of the thyroid cartilege of the larynx (beside hyoid)
  185. linea alba
    white line down ventral center of body.  Narrow stip of fascia connecting two rectus abdominus muscles.  Made of insertions of other abdominal muscles (ensheath rectus).  Cut there for surgery
  186. Function of abdominal muscles
    • Support abdominal organs
    • help flex/arch the back
    • assist with expulsion of feces, urine and newborn
    • assist with vomiting and regurgitation
    • play role in respiration
  187. External abdominal oblique
    • Along ventral rib cage. 
    • Oblique muscles are arranged in layers which have their fibers running in a slanting direction opposite each other. 
    • Outside layer of these muscles is External Abdominal Oblique
    • fibers run caudoventrally
  188. Internal abdominal oblique
    • Between ribs and pelvis
    • Oblique muscles are arranged in layers which have their fibers running in a slanting direction opposite each other.  Middle layer of these muscles is Internal Abdominal Oblique
    • Fibers run cranioventrally
  189. Transverse abdominus
    • Between rib cage and pelvis
    • Oblique muscles are arranged in layers which have their fibers running in a slanting direction opposite each other.  Deepest layer of these muscles is transverse abdominus
    • Fibers run transversely (dorsoventrally)
  190. Abdominal obliques
    • Oblique muscles are arranged in layers which have their fibers running in a slanting direction opposite each other. 
    • Outside layer is External abdominal oblique, running caudoventral
    • Inside layer is Internal abdomal oblique, running cranioventral
    • Deepest layer is Transverse Abdominus, running dorsoventrally
  191. Rectus abdominus
    6-pack muscle.  2 long straight muscles from sternum to prepuse tendon.  Aponeuroses of other muscles surround on both dorsal and ventral surfaces.
  192. Extrinsic muscles of thoracic limb
    • Brachiocephalicus
    • trapezius
    • omotransversarius
    • latissimus dorsi
    • superficial pectoral
    • rhomboid
    • serratus ventralis
    • deep pectoral
  193. Latissimus dorsi
    extrinsic muscle of thoracic limb.  Humerus to spine.  Flexes the shoulder, helping pull the animal forward. 
  194. Pectoral muscles
    Extrinsic muscles of thoracic limb.  Superficial (major) and deep (minor).  Adductors of front legs.  Keep front legs under the animal
  195. Trapezius
    extrinsic muscle of thoracic limb.  Elevates and abducts the forelimb.  Triangle over dorsal scapula (2 parts--acromiotrapezius, spinotrapezius)
  196. Serratus ventralis
    extrinsic muscle of the thoracic limb.  Muscle acts like a sling to support the body between the forelegs.  Serrated edge
  197. Rhoboid
    extrinsic muscle of the thoracic limb.  Lies deep to the trapezius.  Draws the shoulder dorsocranially. 
  198. Lateral intrinsic muscles of scapula and shoulder (3)
    • deltoideus
    • Infraspinatus
    • Supraspinatus
  199. Medial intrinsic muscle of scapula and shoulder (2)
    • subscapularis
    • teres major
  200. caudal intrinsic muscle of arm (1)
    triceps brachii
  201. crainial intrinsic muscle of arm (2)
    • biceps brachii
    • brachialis
  202. craniolateral intrinsic muscle of forearm (5)
    • extensor carpi radialis
    • common digital extensor
    • lateral digital extensor
    • lateral ulnar (extensor carpi ulnaris)
    • abductor pollicis longus (oblique carpal extensor)
  203. Caudomedial intrinsic muscle of forearm (4)
    • flexor carpi radialis
    • flexor carpi ulnaris
    • superficial digital flexor
    • deep digital flexor
  204. Dog deltoid
    intrinsic muscle of lateral shoulder.  Abducts and flexes the shoulder joint
  205. Supraspinatus
    extends the shoulder joint.  Intrinsic muscle of lateral shoulder
  206. Infraspinatus
    flexes the shoulder oint and abducts the limb at the shoulder.  Intrinsic muscle of the lateral shoulder
  207. Teres Major
    Intrinsic muscle of the thoracic limb.  Caudal border of the scapula.  Flexes shoulder
  208. Subscapularis
    intrinsic muscle of the thoracic limb.  Medial intrinsic muscle.  Sits in subscapular fossa, adducts and extends the shoulder joint. 
  209. Triceps brachii
    • intrinsic muscle of the thoracic limb. 
    • 3 heads in most animals (long head, medial head, lateral head)
    • 4 heads (+ accessory head) in carnivores. 
    • Insertion: olecranon of ulna
    • extends the elbow
  210. heads of the triceps brachii
    long, medial and lateral in most animals.  Add accessory for carnivores. 
  211. biceps brachi
    intrinsic muscle of thoracic limb.  Distal scapula to proximal radius.  Flexes the elbow-joint.  Popeye muscle on cat. 
  212. brachialis
    Intrinsic muscle of thoracic limb.  Insert on the radius.  Flexes elbow.  Origin: caudal humerus. 
  213. Elbow flexor
    biceps brachii, brachialis
  214. elbow extensor
    triceps brachii
  215. extensor carpi radialis
    Intrinsic muscle of the forearm. Extends the carpuss.  Located over the radius
  216. Deep digital flexor
    Intrinsic muscle of the forearm.  flexes the digits and is located beneath some of the other digital flexors. 
  217. Carpal extensors (intrinsic craniolateral muscles of forearm) (6)
    • Brachioradialis
    • extensor carpi radialis
    • comon digital extensor
    • lateral digital extensor
    • lateral ulnar (extensor carpi ulnaris)
    • (oblique carpal extensor -- not in the row like the others)
  218. Brachioradialis
    • most cranial (always in cats, usu in dogs, not in ungulates) intrinsic craniolateral forearm muscle.  Runs along cephalic vein. 
    • Supinates paw.
  219. Extensor carpi radialis
    • intrinsic craniolateral forearm muscle from humerus to metacarpals.  Between brachioradialis and common digital extensor.  2 heads we don't care about. 
    • extends carpus and flexes elbow
  220. Common digital extensor
    • intrinsic craniolateral forearm muscle.  Caudal to Extensor carpi radialis (next to lateral digital extensor).  From humerus to distal phalanges
    • Splits into 4 tendons that attach to distal phalanges
    • extends the carpus and digits
  221. Lateral digital extensor
    • intrinsic craniolateral forearm muscle that is between common digital extensor and lateral ulnar (extensor carpi ulnaris).  From humerus to proximal metacarpals
    • smaller and caudal/lateral to common digital extensor.  Splits into 4 tendons that are deep to the common digital extensor's. 
    • Flexes carpal joint
  222. Lateral Ulna (Extensor carpi ulnaris)
    • intrinsic craniolateral forearm muscle that is caudal/lateral to lateral digital extensor (last of the dorsal forearms). 
    • Only flexor that attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus. 
    • Flexes carpal joint
  223. Intrinsic caudomedial muscles of the forearm (flexors) (5)
    • Flexor carpi ulnaris
    • Superficial digital flexor
    • flexor carpi radialis
    • pronator teres
    • (back at extensor carpi radialis)
    • Deep digital flexor (under SDF)
  224. Flexor carpi ulnaris
    Between lateral ulnar and superficial digital flexor.  Most caudal.  2 heads (humerus and olecranon) (at olecranon--the muscle where you flip the arm)
  225. Superficial digital flexor
    • big intrinsic muscle of caudomedial forearm. 
    • Divides into 4 under-wrist tendons.  (humerus to palm)
    • Flexes the digits and carpus
  226. Flexor carpi radialis
    • caudomedial forearm.  Between SDF and pronator teres.  Partly attached to DDF.  (humerus to palmer metacarpals). 
    • Muscle belly only goes to middle of forearm (tendon continues).  Most cranial and medial.  Internal and hard to see. 
  227. Pronator teres
    • Caudomedial forearm.  Obvious triangle, so good for orientation.  Humerus to medial radius. 
    • Pronates the paw. 
  228. Supinator
    • craniolateral forearm.  Humerus to radius (short, next to pronator teres).  Under extensor carpi radialis. 
    • Supinates the paw. 
  229. Deep digital flexor
    • Deep to SDF.  3 heads, connecting to the palmar surface of the digits  Humeral, radial and ulnar heads to distal phalanges (4 tendons). 
    • Flexes digits and carpus. 
  230. oblique carpal extensor (abductor pollicis longus)
    • oblique muscle of cranial forearm, near carpus.  Runs obliquely across the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis.
    • Lies in groove between radius and ulna.   
    • extends carpus and abducts carnivore's first digits.
  231. Pronator quadrates
    • intrinsic forearm.  ulna to radius.  Bridges interosseus gap. 
    • Pronates paw
  232. Caudal hip muscles (4), and what they do
    • Internal obdurator
    • external obdurator
    • gemelli
    • quadratus femoris
    • Outwardly rotate and adduct the limb. 
  233. Lateral muscles of hip (4)
    • tensor fascia latae muscle
    • superficial gluteal
    • middle gluteal
    • deep gluteal
  234. caudal muscles of thigh (3)
    • Biceps femoris
    • semitendinosus
    • semimembranosus
  235. medial muscle of thigh (inner thigh) (4)
    • sartorius
    • gracilis
    • pectineus muscle
    • adductor muscle
  236. cranial muscle of thigh
    • quadriceps femoris (4 heads):
    • vastus lateralis
    • vastus medialis
    • vastus intermediate
    • rectus femoris
  237. craniolateral muscle of distal limb (shin-muscles) (3)
    • Cranial tibial
    • Long digital extensor
    • Peroneus longus
  238. Caudal muscles of distal limb (calf)
    • Gastrocnemius muscle
    • superficial digital flexor
    • deep digital flexor
    • popliteus muscle
  239. lateral femoral fasciae (fascia lata)
    tough white sheet of fascia attached to tensor fascia latae muscle.  Over cranial part of thigh. 
  240. tensor fascia latae muscle
    attaches to fascia lata.  Flexes hip, extends stifle
  241. Gluteal muscles (3) and what they do
    • Superficial gluteal
    • middle gluteal
    • deep gluteal
    • (pelvis to greater trochanter of femur). 
    • Extend hip, abduct limb. 
  242. gluteus maximus
    • superficial gluteal.  Extends hip. 
    • Small, caudal to middle. 
  243. gluteus medius
    middle gluteal.  Extensor of hip.  Larger and more cranial than superficial. 
  244. Hamstring muscles function. 
    • 3 big muscles in the back of the thigh.  Extend the hip, flex the stifle. 
    • Pull the leg backward to PROPEL THE ANIMAL FOREWARD WHEN IT WALKS OR RUNS
  245. Hamstring muscles (3)
    • Biceps femoris
    • semimembranosus
    • semitendinosus
    • propel animal forward when walking or running
  246. lateral muscles of the thigh (in to out) (4)
    • Gracilis (inner thigh)
    • semimembranosus
    • semitendinosus
    • biceps femoris (outer thigh)
  247. medial muscles of the pelvic limb (thigh) (5) that keep legs from sprawling out. 
    • Sartorius (wraps around front of leg)
    • Gracilis (back of thigh)
    • Pectineus
    • Adductor longus
    • Adductor magnus et brevis
  248. Quadriceps femoris muscle
    • 4 heads (rectus femoris from ilium, other three from femur, to tibial tuberosity)
    • Rectus femoris (in center of lateralis and medialis)
    • vastus lateralis (behind fascia lata)
    • vastus medialis
    • vastus intermedius (behind vastus lateralis)
    • Main extensor of stifle joint. 
    • MOVES LEG FORWARD TO TAKE NEXT STEP
  249. Cranial tibial muscle
    • most cranial muscle of distal limb.  Front of tibia.  Tendon veers off to medial side and attaches to plantar part of digits. 
    • Flexes the tarsal joint
  250. Long digital extensor
    • Underneath cranial tibial.  Divides into four tendons. 
    • Extends the digital joint, flexes the tarsal joint and extends the stifle joint. 
  251. Peroneus longus muscle
    • Caudal and lateral to long digital extensor
    • From proximal tibia and fibula to fourth tarsal bone and plantar metatarsals. 
    • Flexes the tarsal joint
  252. lateral digital extensor
    • Thin tibial muscle.  Tendon attaches to fifth digit. 
    • Extends and abducts digit 5
  253. Deep digital flexor (pelvic)
    • Under peroneus longus.  Has 2 or 3 muscle bellies, depending on species.  Caudal tibia/fibula to plantar distal phalanges
    • extends tarsal joint and flexes digital joints
  254. Soleus
    • only present in cat, pelvic limb, under gastrocnemius, between SDF caudal) and DDF (cranial).  Fibula to gastrocnemius
    • extends tarsus
  255. Superficial digital flexor (pelvic)
    • femur to calcaneus and middle phalanges.  Deep to head of gastrocnemius. 
    • Flexes stifle and digits, extends tarsus
  256. gastrocnemius
    • 2 heads, each with sesamoid bone.  Equivalent to human calf.  Femur to calcaneus. 
    • Powerful extention of tarsus (hock) and flexes stifle. 
    • PROPEL BODY FORWARD in taking a step. 
  257. Function of muscles of respiration
    to increase or decrease size of thoracic cavity to draw air into and push air out of the lungs
  258. Inspiratory muscles (6) and function
    • Muscles that increase size of thoracic cavity when they contract, drawing air into lungs. 
    • Diaphragm
    • External intercostal muscles
    • Scalenus
    • levatores costarum
    • rectus thoracis
    • cranial serratus dorsalis
  259. Diaphragm
    Inspiratory muscle, thin, dome-shaped sheet of muscles that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
  260. External intercostal
    inspiratory muscle located between the ribs. caudoventral fibers.  Rotate ribs up and out.
  261. Scalenus
    • cervical vertebrae to first rib.  Inspiratory muscle with multiple parts.
    • Under serratus ventralis. 
  262. Rectus thoracis
    • lateral thorax from third to first rib.  Direct continuation of the rectus abdominus muscle.  Inspiratory. 
    • Under scalenus.
  263. Cranial serratus dorsalis
    • insignificant inspiratory muscle over the dorsal part of the ribs.  Tiny, hard to see. 
    • Pulls ribs forward. 
  264. Expiratory muscles (3) and function
    • aid in pushing air out of the lungs. 
    • Internal intercostal
    • abdominal muscles
    • caudal serratus dorsalis
    • NOT DIAPHRAGM
  265. Internal intercostals
    expiratory muscles.  Deep to external intercostals.  Extend cranioventrally between adjacent ribs.  Rotate ribs backward to push air out. 
  266. Expiratory abdominal muscles
    Push abdominal organs against caudal side of diaphragm to decrease size of thoracic cavity. 
  267. Caudal serratus dorsalis (serratus dorsalis caudalis)
    • Over dorsal part of caudal-most ribs. 
    • pulls ribs caudally during expiration. 
  268. Epaxial back muscles (3) and what
    • Dorsal to transverse process of the vertebrae.  Extensors of the spine. 
    • Iliocostal
    • logissimus
    • transversospinalis
  269. Hypaxial back muscles (3-4) and what
    • muscles below the transverse processes of the vertebrae.  Flexors of spine (along with rectus abdominus). 
    • Major psoas
    • minor psoas
    • iliacus
    • Quadratus lumborum
  270. Iliocostalis
    most lateral column of the epaxial muscles extending in overlapping bundles.
  271. longissimus
    intermediate column of epaxial muscles from iliac crest to head (4 parts). 
  272. Transversopinalis system
    most medial column of epaxial muscles
  273. quadratus lumborum
    • hypaxial muscle.  Ventral cervical vertebrae to os coxae. 
    • flex/stabilize back and lumbar vertebrae
  274. psoas minor
    • hypaxial muscle that attaches to pelvis.
    • flex/stabilize back and lumbar vertebrae
  275. psoas major
    • lateral to and larger than psoas minor. 
    • flex/stabilize back and lumbar vertebrae
  276. Iliacus
    • ilium to femur.  Very close to psoas major. 
    • flex/stabilize back and lumbar vertebrae
  277. Perineum
    the wall and associate structures closing the pelvic outlet and surrounding the anal and urogenital canals
  278. perineum muscles
    • External anal sphincter
    • levator ani
    • coccygeus
  279. external anal sphincter
    striated perineum muscle.  Voluntary.  medial-most to anal.
  280. Levator ani
    • perineum muscle between external anal sphincter and coccygeus. 
    • Acts to compress the rectum and helps pull dog's tail between its rear legs. 
  281. Coccygeus
    lateral-most perineum muscle.  Pulls the dogs tail between its rear legs.
  282. Ear
    • housed within temporal bones of the skull
    • Organ of hearing and balance. 
    • External, middle, and inner
  283. External ear (3 parts)
    • funnel-shaped to collect sound wave vibrations and direct them to the eardrum. 
    • Pinna
    • External auditory canal
    • tympanic membrane
  284. Pinna
    part of ear seen from outside.  Elastic cartilege and skin.  Collects sound wave vibrations and directs them into external auditory canal
  285. External auditory canal
    L-shaped part of outer ear (outer vertical, inner horizontal).  Ends blindly at tympanic membrane. 
  286. Tympanic membrane
    ear drum.  Sound waves strike it and it vibrates at the same frequency through a process called sympathetic vibration. 
  287. sympathetic vibration
    tympannic membrane vibrates at same frequency as sound waves that hit it. 
  288. Middle ear
    cavity (hollowed-out area of temporal bone) containing 3 small bones (ossicles).  Opening of eustachian tube connects it to pharynx (throat)
  289. Ossicles of inner ear
    • Link the tympanic membrane with the cochlea of the inner ear. 
    • Malleus
    • Incus
    • Stapes
  290. Eustachian tube
    • auditory tube.  Part of middle ear that connects ear cavity with pharynx. 
    • Equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the tympanic membrane. 
  291. 2 functional parts of the inner ear
    • Hearing (cochlea)
    • Equilibrium (Vestibular apparatus which consist of utriculus, saccules and semicircular ducts.  Receptors in vestibule and semicircular duct)
  292. Vestibular apparatus of inner ear (3 parts)
    • between cochlear and semicircular canals
    • used for equilibrium
    • consists of utriculus (saclike space), saccules (saclike space) and semicircular ducts.
  293. Cochlea (4 parts)
    • Inner-ear organ of hearing
    • Scala vestibuli
    • scala media
    • scala tympani
    • organ of corti
  294. Semicircular canals (3)
    • Anterior canal
    • Posterior canal
    • lateral canal
    • The ducts lie in three planes at right angles to each other. 
  295. Ocular, Ophthalm
    eye
  296. Three major layers of eyeball
    • fibrous (outer)
    • vascular (middle)
    • nervous (inner)
  297. Fibrous layer of eyeball
    • Outer layer.  Consists of cornea and sclera
    • Admits light into eyeball's interior and gives strength and shape to eyeball. 
  298. Cornea
    • Transparent "window" that admits light to the interior of the eye.  Part of fibrous (outer) layer of eyeball. 
    • Consists of collagen fibers, pain receptors and NO BLOOD VESSELS
  299. Sclera
    • The "white" of the eye.  Part of fibrous (outer) layer of eyeball. 
    • Consists of dense fibrous connective tissue.  Majority of outer fibrous layer of eye. 
  300. Limbus
    junction of cornea and sclera (fibrous layer of eyeball)
  301. Vascular layer of eyeball (3 parts)
    • aka tunic or uvea.  Middle layer of eyeball. 
    • Choroid
    • Iris
    • Ciliary body
  302. Vascular tunic
    network of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the eye. 
  303. Choroid
    Part of vascular layer sandwiched between the sclera and retina.  Consists mainy of pigments and blood vessels that supply blood to retina. 
  304. Tapetum lucidum of choroid
    Part of eyeball (vascular layer) that makes animal's eyes shine in the dark. 
  305. Iris
    Colored part of the eye--part of vascular layer.  Contains pupil. 
  306. Pupil
    Opening at center of iris.  Circular.  In nocturnal animals, a slit that can close completely.  Contained in iris of vascular layer of eyeball. 
  307. Ciliary body
    • A ring-shaped structure located immediatly behind iris in the vascular layer of the eyeball. 
    • Consists of tiny muscles that adjust the shape of the lens to allow near or far vision. 
  308. Retina
    Nervous layer of the eye that contains the actual sensory receptors for vision, rods and cones. 
  309. Compartments of eye (3)
    • Anterior chamber or aqueous humor (between cornea and iris--front),
    • posterior chamber or indocorneal angle (between iris and lens),
    • vitreous chamber or vitreous humor (inner part of eyeball)
  310. lens
    • soft, transparent structure, normally fairly rounded.  Front is in contact with aqueous humor through pupil.  Back is in contact with vitreous humor. 
    • Made of layers of microscopic fibers arranged like the layers of an onion.  Elastic and bioconcave (bulges on both sides)
  311. Main role of lens
    • helps focus a clear image on retina regardless of near or far-ness of object.
    • Ciliary body helps--accommodation
  312. Accommodation
    When ciliary body helps lens focus a clear image for retina, regardless of where the object is. 
  313. Major role of retina
    where visual image is formed, sense and converted to nerve impulses that are decoded in the brain to re-form the image in the conscious mind. 
  314. Rods
    • Main receptor of the eye for low-light vision.  Located in the retina.
    • High light sensitivity, low detail, no color.
    • Domestic animals have more rods than cones. 
  315. Cones
    • main receptor of the eye for color and detail.  Located in the retina.
    • Low light sensitivity, high detail, high color
  316. Fovea centralis
    Dense accumulation of cones in small depression (called fovea centralis) in center of eye.  Area of clearest vision, only in humans and primates.  Domestic animals don't have one (vision less sharp?)
  317. Binocular vision
    seen with both eyes.  Predators have more than prey. 
  318. Monocular vision
    seen with only one eye.  Prey have lots of this. 
  319. Extraocular structures
    • Conjunctiva
    • eyelids
    • lacrimal apparatus
    • eye muscles
  320. Conjunctiva
    thin, transparent membrane that covers the front portion of the eyeball and lines the interior surfaces of the eyelids.  Includes sac where the conjunctiva folds over itself under each eyelid. 
  321. Conjunctivitis
    • Inflammation of the conjunctiva.  Most common eye disease. 
    • Bacterial/viral infections or chemical/physical irritants cause redness, swelling, ocular discharge and discomfort.  Treated by antibiotic ointment/corticosteroids. 
  322. Palpebrae
    eyelid
  323. Medial and lateral canthi
    corners of eye-opening. 
  324. Tarsal gland (meibomian gland)
    modified sebaceous gland between eyelid and conjunctiva
  325. Nictitating membrane
    • third eyelid located medially between the eyelids and the eyeball. 
    • Gland can prolapse or come out of its position and swell, called cherry eye.  Needs surgical repositioning. 
  326. Liquid film (3 layers)
    • overall film that covers eye is made up of three layers:
    • oily
    • water
    • mucus
  327. lacrimal gland
    secretes nutrients and antibodies in watery fluid.  Drains away with nasolactrimal duct and washes away waste.  There is an accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid. 
  328. Lacrimal apparatus
    • Lacrimal gland
    • Lacrimal puncte
    • canaliculus
    • lacrimal sac
    • nasolacrimal duct
  329. extraocular eye muscles (6)
    • attach to the sclera.  Small skeletal muscles that hold the eyeballs in place and delicately move them.  6 shared with humans:
    • dorsal rectus (straight)
    • ventral rectus (straight)
    • medial rectus (straight)
    • lateral rectus (straight)
    • dorsal oblique
    • ventral oblique
  330. Retractor bulbi muscle
    7th extraocular muscle of many animals. 

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