rich in blood vessels to provide nutrients to developing cells in inner layers of hoof
well innervated, sensitive to pain
Equine lateral cartilege
supports equine hoof. With frog and digital cushion, keeps blood flowing through the foot.
At back of hoof, around around and caudal to coffin joint
layers (structure) of equine hoof
coffin bone is cloaked in a layer of corium (modified dermis) which in turn is covered by the outer cornified hoof (modified epidermis).
Outer layers of hoof wall, frog and sole are insensitive and avascular.
interdigitation of corium and hoof wall. Any physical change can effect blood flow to the hoof. Bone shifts to cause founder or laminitis
Coronary band or coronet
band around top of hoof where hair stops. Hair grows from here. (line between furry part and hoof part)
thin waxy layer of hoof that covers outside. shiny
Wall of hoof
convex external surface. Seen from cranial, medial and lateral sides.
Toe of hoof
seen from front. Very tip
quarters of hoof
seen from lateral angle. Sides/bottom of hoof
heel of hoof
back/bottom. Tapers to almost at base
back of hoof near coronary band
bars of hoof
continuation of hoof, around outside of frog on base of hoof.
insensitive triangle of hoof. Horny structure located between the heels on the underside.
Helps return blood from the foot to the body.
Point/apex at toe, base at heel.
sole of hoof
plantar or palmar surface of hoof. Avascular, lacks innervation. Gets nutrients and nervous input from corium (like epidermis). Corium connects sole to underside of coffin bone.
Concave. Fills in from walls to bars
thin white strip that is formed at junction of the sole and the hoof wall.
Needed in shoeing--drive nails outside of the white line
separates frog from bars of the hoof
cleft of frog. Divides frog in half. Central depression of the hoof
fat and fibrous tissue cranial/medial/proximal to the frog. helps support hoof and return blood to body.
cow hoof digits
4 digits, 2 weight-bearing, 2 dewclaw
Similar to equine hoof: Bones (P2 and P3, navicular), wall, white line, sole, heel bulb (keritinized hoof pads for shock absorption), corium, digital cushion.
Not similar: no frog, no bars
interdigital cleft of bovine hoof
separates two hooves (3 and 4). Axial (in between) or abaxial (each side)
curved extension of digital phalanx. what the quick surrounds in the nail
thin shelf of bone that overlaps the claw and forms a band around the root of the claw. Where the claw grows out of
declaw. Removal of the claws in cats. To prevent regrowth, must amputate the entire distal phalanx at the joint
Animals with horns
sheep, goats, cattle, antelope
Bony core with permanent tough external covering
animals with antlers
deer, moose elk.
bony core with velvet covering. Shed yearly
animals that have ossicones
Tiny permanent growths covered in skin, like horn-buds.
animals that have pronghorns
Permanent bony core and unique hairy covering.
Only in the pronghorn antelope
epidermal covering of the cornual process of the frontal bone. Permanent. Vary in sex, size and shape. Never branch.
Bony core covered by a sheet of keratin
all 3 domestic ruminanats have them (cow sheep goats antelope)
inner process lined by combined corium and periosteum.
Cornual process or horny process
outgrowth of frontal bone (might be os cornu--horn bone that fuses). Horn bud grows out as a solid structure that becomes pneumatized by about 6 months of age
ornual diverticulum of frontal sinus
at the base of the horn is a ring of soft horn marking the transisiton from skin to horn. Grwos out then covers with a thin shiny layer
Cow; caudolateral end of head
sheep and goats: behind the orbits
dehorning must be done by:
10 days of age (5-10 ideally). Later and the bone becomes pneumatized and you risk cutting a whole in their head
living bone, have velvet (vascular and innervated), branched, shed annualy, grow from pedicle off frontal bone.
Regulated by hormones (breeding season). Only in cervid males except caribou. Can be enormous--get bigger as animal gets older.
Tear off velvet at end of season--shiny and wood-like
simplest type of head-wear. Paired short, unbranched, permanent, bony processes that are covered in skin and hair. Not shed, both sexes and newborns have them. Lie over sutures between frontal and parietal boens
bony core like a cow, but with a 2-branched sheath that is shed annually. ALways has s2 hooks.
special type: fused mass of long, hair-like strands of keratin. Rest on bony knob on much-strengthened nasal bone. Lacks a bony core. Male and female have horns of equal size.
ear flap. External, most visible cartilege core with skin covering
study of muscles
cytoplasm of a muscle cell
Uses of muscles
cause or prevent movement
keep sphincters closed or open
3 types of muscle tissue
Striated multi-nucleic muscle found on skeleton (most "muscles"), moves bones and generates heat.
Long thin striated fibers with multiple nuclei.
Voluntary movement. Nerve supply necessary for function.
Have arteries, veins and lymphs
Striated single-nucleic, branched muscle of heart. Pumps blood.
Involuntary: nerve supply modified action but not necessary for function. Initiates its own beat. Nervous system just change rhythm.
non-striated, single-nucleic, spindle-shaped cells of internal organs, blood vessels and the eye. Produces movement in internal organs.
Involuntary. Nerve supply to visceral smooth muscle modifies activity. Nerve supply to multiunit is necessary for function
fibrous bands of collagen connecting muscle to bone. Dense regular avascular connective tissue.
broad fibrous connective tissue that attaches some muscle to bone or other muscles
Origin of a muscle
the more stable attachement site of a muscle
insertion of a muscle
the more moveable attachment site of a muscle
directly responsible for the action
opposes action of the agonist. Directly opposite
assists the action of the agonist. Opposes undesireable action.
parallel. Shaped like a strap.
muscle like a feather, with fibers going in two directions on opposite sides
feather-shaped muscle with fibers going in only one direction
feather-like muscle with fibers going in 3 or more directions/sides.
muscle in a circle
one cell. Myofibril
bundle of muscle fibers, or myofibrils held together by connective tissue.
encircles group of muscle fibers forming a fascicle
surrounds each muscle fiber (cell, myofibril)
encircles all the fascicles
connective tissue sheets connecting muscle to bone
form insertion and origin
elastic but with tensile strength
cushioned by sesamoids, bursae and/or sheaths
Innervation of skeletal muscle
single or multiple (trunk) nerves.
Nerve to fiber ration governs delicacy of movement (less nerves per fiber = more delicacy)
stimulation leads to shortening.
Multiple moro units can be in one muscle
Skeletal muscle fiber types
Type I: Red
Type II: White
Skeletal Type I fibers
Red muscle. Contains oxygen-binding protein myoglobin, contacts slowly (slow twitch), contracts for long periods, suited for endurance, slow to fatigue
skeletal type II fibers
white muscle. Absense of myoglobin, contract quickly (fast twitch), short bursts of speed and power
oxygen storage unit. Provides oxygen to working muscles.
Protein found in muscle cells of animals (diving animals have lots so they can stay submerged longer--seals, whales)
Vary in thickness and extent. Most are thin, broad and superficial.
Tense, twitch skin of lateral thorax and abdomen
Little or no attachment to bone
Cutaneous trunci, cutaneous colli, playsmus
cutaneous muscle (dog and cat), ventral to pinna, back of jaw/cheek, dorsal/lateral neck. Opposite cutaneus colli.
covers dorsal and lateral ventral thorax (round the thorax muscle). All domestics but humans have it.
sternum to neck, external jugular. Opposite playsmus (back of neck to jaw). Best in equine
superficial and deep pectoral
internal and external abdominal oblique
middle and superficial gluteals
control facial expressions
enable chewing (mastication)
move sensory structures such as the eye and ear
support the head and allow neck to flex, extend and move head laterally
Orbicularis oris muscle
facial muscle (motor fiber of facial nerve Cn XII) controlling cheek and lips